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Resolve (AI)


* Infection and inflammation with swelling: goiter, lymphedema, hemorrhoids, intestinal polyps, tonsillitis, appendicitis, diverticulitis, infected lesions, dermatological swellings, mastitis, sinusitis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, and thrombophlebitis

* Hardness and nodules: any type of swelling, mass, enlargement, hardness, nodule, scrofula, boil, carbuncle, goiter, sore, lump, furuncle, abscess, polyp, hordeolum or hard-seated lesion in the body that may or may not have accompanying pus, pain or heat sensations

* Lymphatic blockage: this formula drains the lymphatic system to clear stagnation and treat lymph edema



* Anti-infective (antibacterial and antiviral) properties to treat infection

* Anti-inflammatory action to reduce swelling and inflammation

* Antitumor and antiproliferative effects to resolve hardness and nodules

* Antipyretic influence to reduce fever

* Analgesic effect to relieve pain



* Clears heat and detoxifies

* Reduces swelling and promotes discharge of pus

* Invigorates blood circulation and relieves pain



Take 3 to 4 capsules three times daily on an empty stomach. For maximum effectiveness, take up to 6 to 8 capsules three times daily with two tall glasses of warm water. Herbs may be taken with meals if they cause upset on an empty stomach.



Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae)

Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae)

Chi Shao (Radix Paeoniae Rubrae)

Dang Gui Wei (Extremitas Radix Angelicae Sinensis) Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae)

Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae)

Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae)

Kun Bu (Thallus Eckloniae) 

Mo Yao (Myrrha)

Ru Xiang (Gummi Olibanum)

Tong Cao (Medulla Tetrapanacis)

Xia Ku Cao (Spica Prunellae)

Zao Jiao (Fructus Gleditsiae)

Zao Jiao Ci (Spina Gleditsiae)

Zhe Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii)



Nodules and hardness are general terms that are used to describe many different types of infectious and inflammatory disorders, such as sores, abscesses, boils, carbuncles, goiter, lymphedema, mastitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, infected lesions, dermatological swellings, and many others. Though these conditions may have different etiology, they are all characterized by swelling, inflammation, and possible infection.



Resolve (AI) has excellent anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effects to resolve various nodules and hardnesses. From traditional Chinese medicine perspectives, it clears heat, eliminates toxins, reduces swelling, and invigorates blood circulation. Clinically, it can be used as a primary formula or as an adjunct formula to treat various conditions due to infection and inflammation characterized by the formation of hardness, nodules, and swelling.

        Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) is an indispensable anti-inflammatory herb when it comes to treating toxic heat accumulation in the body. Zhe Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii), Xia Ku Cao (Spica Prunellae), and Kun Bu (Thallus Eckloniae) are used in Resolve (AI) to penetrate the channels, soften hardness and expel phlegm accumulation. Zao Jiao (Fructus Gleditsiae), Zao Jiao Ci (Spina Gleditsiae), and Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) drain pus. Blood invigorating herbs such as Ru Xiang (Gummi Olibanum), Mo Yao (Myrrha), Dang Gui Wei (Extremitas Radix Angelicae Sinensis), and Chi Shao (Radix Paeoniae Rubrae) are used to disperse stagnation, relieve pain, and help with the regeneration or healing process. Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) regulates qi, dispels phlegm and has a synergistic effect with the blood invigorating herbs to soften hardness and relieve pain. Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae) dispels lingering wind that may reside in the channels and reduce superficial swelling. Tong Cao (Medulla Tetrapanacis) drains and expels dampness through urination. Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) further helps with detoxification and also harmonizes the formula.

        In conclusion, Resolve (AI) clears heat and resolves phlegm to treat various disorders with formation of hardness and nodules.



* This formula is contraindicated in cases of yin-type (deep-rooted) furuncles or carbuncles where the appearance is grayish dark and shows no signs of redness or pain.

* This formula is contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing.

* Use with caution in cases of Spleen qi deficiency or yang deficiency with coldness of the extremities.

* This formula is not designed for long-term use. It should be discontinued when the desired effects are achieved.

* Though this formula has herbs with marked anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effects, certain conditions, such as acute appendicitis, are still better treated with surgery to avoid rupture of the appendix.

* This herbal formula contains herbs that invigorate blood circulation, such as Dang Gui Wei (Extremitas Radix Angelicae Sinensis). Therefore, patients who are on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies, such as Coumadin (warfarin), should use this formula with caution, or not at all, as there may be a higher risk of bleeding and bruising.[1],[2],[3]



* The primary effect of Resolve (AI) is to reduce inflammation and swelling to soften hardness and nodules. Though it contains herbs with anti-infective effects, use of this formula alone may not be sufficient in treating acute infection with inflammation, such as in tonsillitis or sinusitis. Instead, another formula with heat-clearing, anti-infective actions should be added to potentiate its effect.

* Inflammation of the lymphatic system will often cause subcutaneous formation of hardness and nodules. Such conditions can be effectively treated with Resolve (AI).


Pulse Diagnosis by Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang:

* Big and convex pulse, a pulse that is expanding and forceful on all levels.



* To enhance the antiviral effect, add Herbal AVR.

* To enhance the antibacterial effect, add Herbal ABX.

* With more underlying damp and phlegm due to Spleen qi deficiency, add Pinellia Complex.

* For tonsillitis, add Herbal ENT.

* For high blood pressure and fast heart rate due to excess fire, add Gardenia Complex.

* For nasal polyps or sinusitis, add Magnolia Clear Sinus or Pueraria Clear Sinus.

* For mastitis, add Resolve (Upper).

* For goiter due to hyperthyroidism, add Thyrodex.

* For goiter due to hypothyroidism, add Thyro-forte.

* For constipation, add Gentle Lax (Excess).

* For endometriosis, add Resolve (Lower).

* For prostate enlargement, add P-Support.

* For lymphatic drainage, add Circulation (SJ).

* For herpes or shingles, add Gentiana Complex or Dermatrol (HZ).

* For joint enlargement due to inflammation, add Flex (Heat).

* For gout, add Flex (GT).

* For water retention, add Herbal DRX.

* For chronic stubborn swelling with blood stagnation, add Circulation (SJ).

* For weepy skin conditions, add Dermatrol (Damp).

* For dry skin conditions, add Dermatrol (Dry).

* For non-healing open sores due to qi deficiency, add Immune +.



Traditional Points:

* Weizhong (BL 40), Quchi (LI 11), Xuehai (SP 10), Shenzhu (GV 12), Lingtai (GV 10), Hegu (LI 4), ah shi points

* Bleed veins around Weizhong (BL 40). Needle xi (cleft) points of the channel in which there is swelling.


Classic Master Tung's Points:

* Appendicitis: Wanshunyi (T 22.08), Wanshuner (T 22.09), Shanggao (T 22.21)*, Xiagao (T 22.22)*, Sihuashang (T 77.08)

* Boil and carbuncle: Jianzhong (T 44.06), Waisanguan (T 77.27), Zhiwu (T 11.26)

* Cellulitis: Linggu (T 22.05), Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Sanzhong (T 77.07), Simashang (T 88.18), Simazhong (T 88.17), Simaxia (T 88.19), Minghuang (T 88.12), Tianhuang (T 88.13), Qihuang (T 88.14)

* Goiter: Simashang (T 88.18), Simazhong (T 88.17), Simaxia (T 88.19), Sanzhong (T 77.07), Xinling (T 33.17)*, Sihuashang (T 77.08), Cesanli (T 77.22), Jianyu (LI 15), Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Cexiasanli (T 77.23). Bleed the LU area on the lower limb. Bleed the back of the neck. Bleed before needling for best result.

* Hemorrhoids: Qimen (T 33.01), Qijiao (T 33.02), Qizheng (T 33.03), Waisanguan (T 77.27), Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Sanzhong (T 77.07), Kongzui (LU 6), Huofu (T 88.41)*, Huoliang (T 88.42)*, Huochang (T 88.43)*. Bleed dark veins on the back of the knees. Bleed dark veins on the KI channel of the lower limb. Bleed before needling for best result.

* Lymph blockage/swelling: Linggu (T 22.05), Jianzhong (T 44.06), Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Sanzhong (T 77.07), Menjin (T 66.05), Sihuaxia (T 77.11)

* Lipoma: Minghuang (T 88.12), Qihuang (T 88.14). Bleed the lipoma for yellow fluids. Bleed before needling for best result.

* Mastitis: Jianfeng (T 44.31)*, Jianzhong (T 44.06), Fenzhishang (T DT.01), Shuanglongyi (T 77.29)*, Shuanglonger (T 77.30)*, Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Sanzhong (T 77.07). Bleed the HT, LU, LR areas on the back from T4-T7 with cupping. Bleed before needling for best result.

* Osteomyelitis: Tongshen (T 88.09), Tongwei (T 88.10), Tongguan (T 88.01), Simashang (T 88.18), Simazhong (T 88.17). Needle everyday. Bleed the affected area.

* Tonsillitis: Sanjian (LI 3), Mu (T 11.17), Qihu (T 77.26), Waisanguan (T 77.27), Xinling (T 33.17)*, Yizhong (T 77.05), Erzhong (T 77.06), Sanzhong (T 77.07), Hegu (LI 4), Linggu (T 22.05), Dabai (T 22.04), Tushui (T 22.11), Shiyin (T 88.32), Cesanli (T 77.22), Zuqianjin (T 77.24). Bleed Shaoshang (LU 11) and also dark veins nearby Yinlingquan (SP 9) to Xuehai (SP 10), Shaoshang (LU 11). Bleed before needling for best result.


Master Tung’s Points by Dr. Chuan-Min Wang:

* Lumps, nodules, lymphatic system detoxification: Tongguan (T 88.01), Tongshan (T 88.02), Waisanguan (T 77.27)


Balance Method by Dr. Richard Tan:

* Bleed Shaoze (SI 1) and Dadun (LR 1).

* Depending on the case, select additional ‘balance’ points.


Ear Acupuncture:

* Acute tonsillitis: Bleed the protruding vein in the back of the ear and apex of the tragus once a day. Needle and strongly stimulate the Throat, Pharynx, and Tonsils.


Auricular Medicine by Dr. Li-Chun Huang:

* Simple goiter: Thyroid, Endocrine, Pituitary, Thalamus, San Jiao, Kidney, Liver

* Appendicitis: Appendix, Abdomen, Sympathetic, Endocrine, Shenmen, Occiput

* Lymphadenitis: San Jiao, Allergic Area, Adrenal Gland, Liver, Spleen, Endocrine. Bleed Ear Apex or Helix 4



* Refrain from eating spicy, greasy, fried foods, BBQ, canned foods, fermentated or dairy products, seafood, alcohol, duck or the internal organs of any creature during the course of treatment.

* Drink plenty of water throughout the day.

* For tonsillitis, gargle with salt water for one minute, twice daily.

* The Spleen is responsible for generating post-natal qi, and good Spleen function also contributes to a healthy immune system. Foods that damage the Spleen should be avoided:

§ Avoid any and all foods that contain sugar, such as cake, dessert, candy, chocolate, canned juice, soft drinks, caffeinated drinks, stevia, sugar substitutes, agave, xylitol, and corn syrup.

§ Avoid raw or uncooked meats, such as sashimi, sushi, steak tartar, and seared meat. Minimize consumption of foods that are cooling in nature, including tofu, tomato, celery, asparagus, bamboo, seaweed, kelp, bitter melon, cucumber, gourd, luffa, eggplant, winter melon, watermelon, honeydew, citrus, oranges, guava, grapefruit, pineapple, plums, pear, banana, papaya, white radish, mustard leaf, potherb mustard, Chinese kale, napa, and bamboo sprout. Do not eat foods straight from the refrigerator. Long-term intake of cold fruits and vegetables like those listed above may be damaging to the Spleen. The cooling property of foods can be neutralized by cooking or adding 20 pieces of Gou Qi Zi (Fructus Lycii).

§ Avoid carbohydrates like white rice or bread as they may produce dampness.

§ No seafood especially shellfish, like crabs, oyster, scallops, clams, lobster and shrimp (they enter the yangming Stomach channel).

§ Avoid fermented foods like cheese or fermented tofu.

§ Do not eat dairy products, such as milk, cream, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream.

§ No lamb, beef, goose or duck.

§ Avoid fried or greasy foods.

* Warm and hot natured foods that damage qi and yin should be avoided, such as:

§ certain fruits like mango and durian that produce heat.

§ stimulants like coffee, alcohol, and energy drinks.

§ spicy/pungent/aromatic vegetables such as pepper, garlic, onions, basil, rosemary, cumin, funnel, anise, leeks, chives, scallions, thyme, saffron, wormwood, mustard, chili pepper, and wasabi.

* Avoid food and drinks with artificial coloring.

* Consume as few meat products as possible. Do not eat processed meats, such as lunch meats, hot dogs and sausages, as they contain nitrites that are associated with inflammation and chronic disease.


The Tao of Nutrition by Dr. Maoshing Ni and Cathy McNease:

* Lumps, nodules, and tumors: Make tea from seaweed, peach kernel and green orange peels to take internally. Externally, make poultice of seaweed, ginger, and dandelion, and apply locally.

* Swollen lymph glands, nodules, scrofula, goiter, and tuberculosis: Dry taro root, grind to powder, then take equal parts of water chestnuts and jellyfish and boil into tea. Take the liquid and mix with the taro root powder; roll into pills the size of mung beans, take two tablespoons of pills three times daily with warm water.



* Mild exercise is recommended as it will help with qi and blood circulation in the body. However, individuals with dermatological swellings should avoid heavy exercise that induces sweating, as it may delay healing of sores on the skin.

* Do not scratch the lesions to avoid contraction of infection and formation of scars. When boils or cysts break and are draining, keep the local area clean to prevent infection to the other parts of the body. After handling a boil, hands should be washed thoroughly to avoid transferring infection to other areas.



* M.I., a 29-year-old female, presented with pus-filled sores located on her scalp. It had been occurring for a week along with symptoms of pain, slight itching, and fever. The cause was unknown. The sores were described as filled with white pus and 3-4 mm width. Her Western diagnosis was seborrheic dermatitis (capiti); and the TCM diagnosis was blood heat with wind dryness. The patient was prescribed the combination of Resolve (AI) and Herbal ABX both at three capsules three times a day. After three days the inflammation and sores had gone down and within one week the sores had completely resolved. Submitted by A.I., Hilo, Hawaii.

* J.V., a 56-year-old female, with diabetes and overweight presented with sores located in the genital region. The sores were affected by her blood sugar levels. The TCM diagnoses included wind and damp-heat. Resolve (AI) and Herbal ABX at four capsules three times a day were prescribed. This condition is ongoing and occurs each time the patient doesn’t control her diet or blood sugar level. Resolve (AI) and Herbal ABX greatly reduced the sores and alleviated the discomfort when needed. She kept this combination on hand and they have always work for her. Submitted by A.I., Hilo, Hawaii.

* F.T., a 44-year-old female marathon runner, presented with a Baker’s cyst on her left knee, previously diagnosed by an MRI, measuring out to be 4 cm in diameter. Objective findings were pain and swelling, limiting her ability to walk and run. The practitioner diagnosed this condition as stagnation of qi and blood within the channels, as well as heat toxin and accumulation of phlegm. Resolve (AI) and Flex (NP) were prescribed at three grams three times a day at a 2:1 ratio. After one month of taking the herbs, the cyst was almost completely resolved. The formula had been modified to address the residual inflammation of stagnation in the channels. Thereafter, the client was able to begin long distance running again without further problems. Other than that condition, the patient was in excellent health. She had eliminated coffee from her diet and started eating anti-inflammatory foods while being treated for the cyst. Submitted by E.Z., Portland, Oregon.

* L.L., a 52-year-old female, presented with body aches all over in the entire body along with swelling of the legs. Additional symptoms included low-grade fever, sore throat, and low energy. The patient had been previously diagnosed with Lyme's disease. Her pulse was thin and weak and her tongue was pale and dull with thin white coating. The practitioner diagnosed this condition as general qi and blood stagnation with Spleen qi deficiency. For treatment, the patient was instructed to take Resolve (AI) and Flex (NP) in conjunction with acupuncture. As a result, the patient’s energy had increased, the pain had lessened, and the sore throat was no longer present. Additional treatment the patient had received was lymphatic massage which also had helped her improve. Submitted by B.L., Fort Myers, Florida.

* B.S., a 34-year-old male, presented with feeling of fullness in the head due to a middle ear condition. No objective findings were found when taking a look at his ears, nose, and throat. The TCM diagnosis was phlegm fluid retention in the upper jaw obstructing the orifices. For treatment, a combination of Magnolia Clear Sinus, Resolve (AI), and Circulation (SJ) were prescribed. Relief of his headaches was experienced immediately after taking Resolve (AI). However, the pain had returned. It was believed to be a structural/mechanical blockage within the middle ear, which required greater attention than an herbal prescription. Submitted by B.S., Niceville, Florida.

* D.C., a 45-year-old woman, presented with right-sided elbow pain that began after she received a cortisone injection. She also suffered from depression after having recently moved to a new location. The right elbow appeared swollen and slightly warm to the touch. Her hands and feet were always cold. The TCM diagnosis was bi zheng (painful obstruction syndrome) with Liver qi stagnation. After taking Resolve (AI) and Si Ni San (Frigid Extremities Powder), her elbow pain was 75% better and no longer hurt steadily. It worsened with work but was bearable. The patient also received acupuncture and homeopathic therapy. Submitted by M.C., Sarasota, Florida.

* M.S., a 41-year-old female, presented with an allergic reaction: both eyes were itchy and weeping thick yellow fluids. This worsened with exposure to dust or chemicals. The TCM diagnosis was yin deficiency with damp-heat accumulation. After taking Resolve (AI) with Ming Mu Di Huang Wan (Improve Vision Pill with Rehmannia), the patient was 95% better. She continued to take the herbs and noticed that the symptoms would return when she stopped the herbs. This patient did not receive any acupuncture treatment. Submitted by M.C., Sarasota, Florida.



Resolve (AI) is formulated specifically to treat formation of hardness and nodules due to a wide variety of causes, including infection, inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, lipoma, and many others. The herbs in Resolve (AI) have demonstrated anti-infective properties to treat infection, anti-inflammatory action to reduce swelling and inflammation, and antitumor and antiproliferative effects to resolve hardness and nodules. Resolve (AI) is most effective in the treatment of swelling and inflammation due to infection, with the formation of abscesses, hardness and nodules.

        Resolve (AI) contains many herbs with marked anti-infective (antibacterial and antiviral) functions. Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) has demonstrated a broad spectrum of inhibitory actions against Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, E. coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Diplococcus meningitidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[4],[5] Decoction of Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) has an inhibitory effect against E. coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, Bacillus proteus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, and species of Shigella.[6] Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae) has an antibacterial effect against Shigella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and an antiviral effect against influenza viruses.[7] Xia Ku Cao (Spica Prunellae) has demonstrated an inhibitory action against Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus, and dermatophytes.[8] All together, herbs in Resolve (AI) provide a potent and wide-spectrum anti-infective effect to ensure complete and effective treatment of infection.

        Many herbs in Resolve (AI) have with marked anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects. This well-rounded action is necessary, as infection and inflammation are often accompanied by fever and pain. In this formula, Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) has potent anti-inflammatory effects.[9],[10] Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) has both anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.[11] Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) also exhibits anti-inflammatory activity to decrease the permeability of blood vessels, a symptom associated with inflammation or allergy.[12] Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), on the other hand, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic influence, and is commonly used to treat both pain and inflammation.[13] It has been shown that Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) is approximately 1.1 times stronger than aspirin to reduce inflammation, and 1.7 times stronger to relieve pain.[14] Lastly, Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) is regarded by many as one of the most potent herbs to reduce inflammation. Unlike most herbs, Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by stimulating the production of glucocorticoids and slows down the rate of breakdown of the same substances. Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) has been used successfully for treatment of inflammation, edema, granuloma formation, edematous arthritis, and other conditions. The anti-inflammatory influence of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid is approximately 1/10th that of cortisone.[15]

        Resolve (AI) contains many herbs that treat hardness and nodules due to various disorders. Xia Ku Cao (Spica Prunellae) has marked effectiveness in treating lipoma in animals.[16] Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) has an antitumor effect, and showed significant inhibition in a dose-dependent manner on many cultured human tumor cells in vitro.[17] Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae) possesses strong antiproliferative properties against several human tumor cell lines.[18] Mo Yao (Myrrha) has antiproliferative and antineoplastic effects against eight cancer cell-lines.[19] Zao Jiao (Fructus Gleditsiae) has an anticancer effect against various types of solid and non-solid tumor cell lines including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.[20] According to another study, Zao Jiao (Fructus Gleditsiae) shows anticancer potential on various solid tumor and leukemia cell lines in vitro. The mechanism of this anticancer effect is attributed to its apoptotic activity, telomerase inhibition, antiangiogenesis, and suppression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression.[21],[22] Zao Jiao Ci (Spina Gleditsiae) also has a significant anticancer effect, without any negative side effects.[23]

        In summary, Resolve (AI) is comprised of herbs that are well-documented for their anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antiproliferative effects. The clinical applications include hardness and nodules due to infection and inflammation, with such presentation as fever, abscess, nodules, hardness, discharge, and related symptoms.



Nodules and hardness represent a wide range of disorders, including infection, inflammation, and obstruction. When infection is involved, anti-infectives may be used orally or topically. When there is pain and inflammation, analgesic or anti-inflammation drugs may be used for symptomatic treatment. Lastly, surgery may be performed to directly remove the nodule or hardened tissues.

        These nodules are considered to be the stagnation of qi, blood, and phlegm. From a pharmacological perspective, these herbs have anti-infective effects to treat infection, and anti-inflammatory effects to reduce swelling and inflammation. Furthermore, these herbs are also effective for hardness and nodules where there are no signs of infection and inflammation. For this application, however, herbs must be taken continuously for a few months to slowly dissolve and disperse these nodules and hardened tissues.

        Nodules and hardened tissues encompass a wide variety of clinical conditions. When the cause is unknown, Western medicine struggles to identify a diagnosis and a treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine, however, is quite effective as it offers a wide range of therapeutic substances to treat infection, reduce swelling and inflammation, and dissolve and disperse nodules and hardened tissues.


[1] Chan K, Lo AC, Yeung JH, Woo KS. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1995 May;47(5):402-6.

[2] Pharmacotherapy 1999 July;19(7):870-876.

[3] European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 1995; 20(1):55-60.

[4] Xin Yi Xue (New Medicine), 1975; 6(3):155.

[5] Jiang Xi Xin Yi Yao (Jiangxi New Medicine and Herbology); 1960; (1):34.

[6] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 796.

[7] Zhong Yao Tong Bao (Journal of Chinese Herbology), 1988; 13(6):364.

[8] Zhong Yi Xue (Chinese Herbal Medicine), 1989; 20(6):22.

[9] Chang Yong Zhong Yao Cheng Fen Yu Yao Li Shou Ce (A Handbook of the Composition and Pharmacology of Common Chinese Drugs), 1994; 1459:1462.

[10] Zhong Guo Zhong Yao Za Zhi (People's Republic of China Journal of Chinese Herbology), 1991; 16(9):560.

[11] Shan Xi Yi Kan (Shanxi Journal of Medicine), 1960; (10):22.

[12] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 567.

[13] Xin Yi Yao Xue Za Zhi (New Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1975; (6):34.

[14] Yao Xue Za Zhi (Journal of Medicinals), 1971; (91):1098.

[15] Zhong Cao Yao (Chinese Herbal Medicine), 1991; 22(10):452.

[16] Zhong Cao Yao (Chinese Herbal Medicine), 1989; 20(6):22.

[17] Kim YK, Kim YS, Ryu SY. Antiproliferative effect of furanocoumarins from the root of Angelica dahurica on cultured human tumor cell lines. Phytother Res. 2007 Mar;21(3):288-90.

[18] Tai J, Cheung S. Anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities of Saposhnikovia divaricata. Oncol Rep. 2007 Jul;18(1):227-34.

[19] Shoemaker M., Hamilton B., Dairkee S.H., Cohen I. & Campbell M.J. In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs. Phytother Res. 2005, 19(7): 649-651.

[20] Pak KC, Lam KY, Law S, Tang JC. The inhibitory effect of Gleditsia sinensis on cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Lo Ka Chung Centre for Natural Anti-cancer Drug Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China. Int J Mol Med. 2009 Jan;23(1):121-9.

[21] Cheung F, Chui CH, Chan AS, Lau FY, Cheng GY, Wong RS, Kok SH, Teo IT, Cheng CH, Tang JC. Inhibition of proteasome activity in Gleditsia sinensis fruit extract-mediated apoptosis on human carcinoma cells. State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, Shenzhen, PR China. Int J Mol Med. 2005 Nov;16(5):925-9.

[22] Chow LM, Chui CH, Tang JC, Teo IT, Lau FY, Cheng GY, Wong RS, Leung TW, Lai KB, Yau MY, Gou D, Chan AS. Gleditsia sinensis fruit extract is a potential chemotherapeutic agent in chronic and acute myelogenous leukemia. Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China. Oncol Rep. 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):1601-7.

[23] Lee SJ, Park K, Ha SD, Kim WJ, Moon SK. Gleditsia sinensis thorn extract inhibits human colon cancer cells: the role of ERK1/2, G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and p53 expression. Department of Biotechnology, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702, South Korea; Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung 72-1, Korea. Phytother Res. 2010 Dec;24(12):1870-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3214.