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GI Care II


* GI infection and inflammation: traveler’s diarrhea, gastroenteritis, enteritis, dysentery, food poisoning and other gastrointestinal disorders with diarrhea, foul-smelling stools with burning sensations of the anus, abdominal discomfort, pain, borborygmus, possibly nausea, vomiting and a feeling of incomplete defecation

* GI disorders with damp-heat

* All excess types of diarrhea characterized by heat and dampness

* Monosodium glutamate (MSG) poisoning



* Treats diarrhea, dysentery, enteritis, stomach flu, and other gastrointestinal disorders 

* Antibiotic effect to treat acute diarrhea due to bacterial or viral infection

* Antitoxic effect to treat acute diarrhea due to drug or food poisoning

* Gastroprotective benefit to treat acute diarrhea with mucus or blood present in the stools

* Alleviates the signs and symptoms of acute diarrhea, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, intestinal cramps and spasms, and fever



* Dispels damp-heat in the Intestines

* Binds the Intestines and stops diarrhea

* Promotes digestion and relieves pain



Take 3 to 4 capsules three times daily on an empty stomach, with warm water. Dosage may be increased to 6 to 8 capsules three times daily, if necessary. Herbs should be taken for at least seven days in cases of acute infection to completely expel the pathogens.



Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba)

Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae)

Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae)

Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae)

Chuan Mu Xiang (Radix Vladimiriae)

Chun Pi (Cortex Ailanthi)

Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei)

Da Zao (Fructus Jujubae)

Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis)

Fu Ling (Poria)

Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae)

Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae Lobatae)

Guang Huo Xiang (Herba Pogostemonis)

Hou Po (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis)

Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis)

Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae)

Jie Geng (Radix Platycodonis)

Qing Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride)

Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi)

Shen Qu (Massa Fermentata)

Sheng Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens)

Wu Bei Zi (Galla Chinensis)

Zhi Qiao (Fructus Aurantii)

Zi Su Ye (Folium Perillae)



Gastrointestinal disorders, such as traveler’s diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, and enteritis, are generally caused by invasion of foreign substances or micro-organisms that cause inflammation of the lining of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Common causes of these gastrointestinal disorders include infection (bacteria, virus, or parasites), plant toxins (mushrooms), chemical toxins (heavy metals, MSG), and drugs (antibiotics, antihelminthics, cytotoxic agents, colchicine, digoxin, NSAIDs). Clinical manifestations include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and discomfort, diarrhea with foul-smelling stools with burning sensations of the anus, and in some cases, presence of blood, mucus, WBC or RBC in the stools. Depending on the cause, proper treatment may include fluid replacement, antidiarrheals and antibiotics.



GI Care II is formulated specifically to treat diarrhea, dysentery, enteritis, and other intestinal disorders. According to traditional Chinese medicine, such conditions are often characterized by damp-heat in the Intestines, leading to such symptoms as pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, urgency, tenesmus, burning sensation of the anus after defecation, and diarrhea with or without the presence of mucus or blood. Therefore, this formula uses herbs to dispel damp-heat in the Intestines, promote digestion, relieve pain, and bind the Intestines to stop diarrhea.

        Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae Lobatae) raises the yang qi of the Spleen to stop diarrhea. It generates fluids to replenish the loss of water due to diarrhea. With its ability to relieve the exterior, it also works for patients with intestinal flu or traveler’s diarrhea. Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae Lobatae) works synergistically with Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba) and Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) to relieve abdominal and intestinal pain, spasms and tenesmus associated with diarrhea or dysentery.

        Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) and Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis) clear damp-heat in the Intestines to relieve burning sensations, feelings of incomplete defecation and frequent urges to defecate. This pair of herbs also relieves pain by reducing inflammation and infection. Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi) and Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) are used to moderate the heat-clearing effect to prevent damages to the Spleen and Stomach.

        Chun Pi (Cortex Ailanthi) and Wu Bei Zi (Galla Chinensis) are astringents used symptomatically to bind the Intestines for relief of diarrhea. Chun Pi (Cortex Ailanthi) and Wu Bei Zi (Galla Chinensis), sticky by nature, patches ulcerations to repair the intestinal walls.

        Chuan Mu Xiang (Radix Vladimiriae), Hou Po (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae), Qing Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride), and Zhi Qiao (Fructus Aurantii) promote the movement of qi and help eliminate stagnation, turbidity, bloating and gas in the Intestines. Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei), Chuan Mu Xiang (Radix Vladimiriae) and Hou Po (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) dispel turbidity and remove the bacteria causing the infection or inflammation. With their descending and purgative functions, they prevent the retention of pathogenic factors in the Intestines. A small amount of Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) is used in this formula to completely purge damp-heat.

        Jie Geng (Radix Platycodonis) raises the qi of both the Lung and Large Intestine, two organs connected by their zang fu relationship. It is commonly used to treat diarrhea and tenesmus, due to its function of lifting the sunken qi. Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) dispels pus and has an ascending effect to help Jie Geng (Radix Platycodonis) lift the sunken qi to treat diarrhea and tenesmus.

        Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae), Sheng Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens), Da Zao (Fructus Jujubae), and Shen Qu (Massa Fermentata) harmonize the middle jiao to relieve nausea and vomiting. Guang Huo Xiang (Herba Pogostemonis) and Zi Su Ye (Folium Perillae) are both fragrant and wake the Spleen. They are used to harmonize the middle jiao, dispel dampness, and relieve vomiting and nausea. Finally, Fu Ling (Poria) and Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) strengthen the Spleen to relieve diarrhea.

        In conclusion, GI Care II is a great formula to treat damp-heat affecting the gastrointestinal tract with infection and inflammation.



* This formula is contraindicated for patients who have diarrhea caused by deficiency and cold, Spleen qi deficiency, or Spleen and Kidney yang deficiencies.

* This formula is contraindicated for patients who are pregnant or nursing.

* Allergy warning: Shen Qu (Massa Fermentata) used in this product contains wheat. Persons with allergy to wheat should not take this product.

* This herbal formula contains herbs that invigorate blood circulation, such as Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis). Therefore, patients who are on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies, such as Coumadin (warfarin), should use this formula with caution, or not at all, as there may be a higher risk of bleeding and bruising.[1],[2],[3]

* The following warning statement is required by the State of California: “This product contains Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei). Read and follow directions carefully. Do not use if you have or develop diarrhea, loose stools, or abdominal pain because Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) may worsen these conditions and be harmful to your health. Consult your physician if you have frequent diarrhea or if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.”



* Diarrhea is a symptom, not a disease. Therefore, if it persists after taking this formula for one to two weeks, have a stool sample examined microscopically for cells, mucus, fat, blood, infectious organisms and other substances to determine the exact cause.

* Patients taking GI Care II for colitis or traveler’s diarrhea should continue taking the formula for an additional two to three days after all the symptoms have subsided. This is to ensure that all the pathogenic factors are cleared out from the Intestines in order to prevent development of chronic colitis in the future. To strengthen the Spleen afterwards, GI Tonic should be administered for three to five days.

* GI Care II is a great formula to have while traveling to prevent or treat traveler’s diarrhea and other gastrointestinal infections.

* GI Care II incorporates numerous antibiotic herbs for two important reasons. First, the use of multiple herbs within an herbal formula has been shown to increase the antibiotic effect more than tenfold. Second, isolated use of single ingredients is often ineffective and increases the risk of development of bacterial and viral resistance.[4] Given these two reasons, it is necessary to combine herbs with appropriate properties to ensure effectiveness in treating the infection and minimizing the potential risk of the micro-organisms developing resistance and/or mutation.

* There are two formulas that can be used to treat inflammation of the bowel.

·  GI Care II is designed more for an active infection and inflammation of the intestines due to improper food intake. Because bacteria lodged in the intestines need to be purged out, purgative herbs such as Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) are used.

·  GI Care (UC) is designed more for patients suffering from chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease without the active infection. Therefore, it contains many herbs that would generate new tissue and repair the normal flora of the intestines.


Pulse Diagnosis by Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang:

* Traveler’s diarrhea, enteritis, colitis, or gas: rainbow pulse, a convex-shaped pulse that is thick, forceful, and expanding on and extends distally to the left cun

* Inflammation of the digestive system: floating and forceful pulse on the right and left guan



* For bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract, add Herbal ABX.

* For viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract, add Herbal AVR.

* With more inflammation, add Astringent Complex.

* Fistula or diverticulitis, or pain with pus-filled pockets of infection or abscess, fever or inflammation, use with Resolve (AI) and Astringent Complex.

* For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with bloating and gas, use with GI Harmony.

* With stress, add Calm or Calm (ES).

* For irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, use GI Harmony and Gentle Lax (Deficient) instead.

* For intestinal and abdominal cramping and pain, use with Flex (SC).

* In monosodium glutamate (MSG) poisoning, use with Herbal DTX.

* For ulcerative colitis, add GI Care (UC).

* For hemorrhoids, add GI Care (HMR).

* For excess heat, add Gardenia Complex.

* For dryness and thirst, add Nourish (Fluids).

* For bleeding, add Notoginseng 9.



Traditional Points:

* Shangjuxu (ST 37), Tianshu (ST 25), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangwan (CV 13), Guanyuan (CV 4)

* Needle Tianshu (ST 25), Shangjuxu (ST 37), and Xiajuxu (ST 39). Bleed veins next to Zusanli (ST 36)


Classic Master Tung's Points:

* Gastroenteritis (acute): Huozhi (T 88.15), Qihuang (T 88.14), Zusanli (ST 36), Ganmen (T 33.11), Changmen (T 33.10), Fuchang (T 77.12), Zhiwujin (T 11.08), Zuqianjin (T 77.24), Zuwujin (T 77.25), Sihuashang (T 77.08), Sihuazhong (T 77.09), Jinyingshang (T 88.33)* and Jinyingxia (T 88.34)*. Bleed the LU area on the lower limb.

* Gastroenteritis (chronic): Piyi (T 88.35)*, Pier (T 88.36)*, Pisan (T 88.37)*, Cesanli (T 77.22), Menjin (T 66.05), Linggu (T 22.05), Changmen (T 33.10), Zhiwujin (T 11.08). Bleed the dark veins nearby the ST channel on the lower limb.

* Bloating: Pizhong (T 11.18), Sihuashang (T 77.08), Sihuazhong (T 77.09), Sihuaxia (T 77.11), Fuchang (T 77.12), Menjin (T 66.05), Huoju (T 66.11), Changmen (T 33.10), Minghuang (T 88.12), Tianhuang (T 88.13), Qihuang (T 88.14), Beimian (T 44.07), Fukuai (T 1010.15), Shangjiuli (T 88.26), Zhongjiuli (T 88.25), Xiajiuli (T 88.27), Sifuyi (T 1010.11), Sifuer (T 1010.10)


Master Tung’s Points by Dr. Chuan-Min Wang:

* Traveler’s diarrhea: Changmen (T 33.10), Menjin (T 66.05)


Balance Method by Dr. Richard Tan:

* Left side: Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Tiaokou (ST 38), Ximen (PC 4), Neiguan (PC 6) or ah shi points nearby, and Large Intestine on the left ear.

* Right side: Taibai (SP 3), Gongsun (SP 4), Xuehai (SP 10), Hegu (LI 4), Quchi (LI 11), Shousanli (LI 10) or ah shi points nearby, and Small Intestine on the right ear.

* Left and right sides can be alternated from treatment to treatment.


Auricular Medicine by Dr. Li-Chun Huang:

* Acute gastroenteritis: Spleen, Stomach, Sympathetic, Rectum, Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Sigmoid, Digestive Subcortex. Bleed Ear Apex.

§ Abdominal spasm: add Shenmen, Occiput

§ Bearing down sensation in the abdomen: add Abdominal Distension and Lower Jiao



* Patients with diarrhea should keep taking in plenty of pure water and appropriate foods to prevent dehydration and malnutrition.

* During the recovery phase of diarrhea, eat foods that are easy to digest early in the meal, such as soup, porridge, and cooked fruits and vegetables.

* Avoid foods that may trigger diarrhea or are hard to digest, such as sorbitol, dairy products, spicy food, alcohol, and caffeine.

* Avoid eating raw, cold or unsanitary food and beverages.

* Use a separate chopping board to prepare raw foods and fruits to prevent contamination with other foods.

* Do not eat foods with refined sugar during the recovery phase, especially if the diarrhea is caused by bacterial infection.

* Incorporate probiotics into the diet. Different strands of probiotics should be taken while on herbs. At least double or triple the normal recommended dosage.


The Tao of Nutrition by Dr. Maoshing Ni and Cathy McNease:

* Diarrhea

§ Recommendations: garlic, black pepper, blueberries, cinnamon, raspberry leaves, lotus seeds, burned rice, yams, sweet potatoes, fresh fig leaves, peas, buckwheat, litchi, guava peel, apple, charcoaled bread, ginger, pearl barley, basil, and unripe prunes.

§ Cook rice porridge with lotus seed and yam or with barley.

§ Cook rice porridge with ginger and black pepper.

§ Eat burnt rice or bread.

§ Take two tablespoons dried apples, three times daily on an empty stomach with warm water.

§ Drink black tea.

§ Take two bulbs of garlic, bake until black. Then boil in water and drink the tea.

§ Make tea from dried litchi and Chinese black dates.

§ Make tea from guava peel.

§ Make tea from ginger, fennel, basil, and Chinese black dates.

§ Make tea from unripe prunes.

§ Eat sweet rice porridge.

§ Avoid cold, raw foods, most fruits, juices, and overeating.



* Remind patients of the importance of washing their hands prior to eating.

* Patients with intestinal disturbance due to stress should engage in regular exercise, adequate rest, and normal sleep patterns. Practicing meditation exercises at least twice daily will also be beneficial. Get away from the daily routine to do something enjoyable to relieve stress whenever possible.

* Relax, rest and drink plenty of water until the condition clears up.



* M.K., a 52-year-old female, presented with traveler’s diarrhea as well as hyperactive bowel sounds. Blood work results were monocytes at level 18, whereas normal would be less than 7; neutrophils 66 (40-60%), lymphocytes 18 (25-40%). This concluded that with the imbalance ratio of neutrophils high and lymphocytes low she was experiencing a bacterial infection. Monocytes at high levels usually signify a parasitic problem. The TCM diagnosis was damp-heat in the Intestines. The patient was prescribed GI Care II at four capsules three times daily on an empty stomach with a glass of water. After taking the herbs for five days the dosage was modified to three capsules three times daily to finish the bottle. The patient has no longer been experiencing intestinal problems. Submitted by N.H., Chatsworth, California.

* T.P., a 6-year-old female, presented with profuse diarrhea, cramping, and fever for four days. She had been on a trip to Mexico and was recommended to bring a bottle of GI Care II with her just in case. The practitioner diagnosed this condition as damp-heat in the Intestines. For treatment of the infection, she took 2 capsules three times per day. After the second day of taking the herbs, the fever had subsided and her stools and cramping improved. She continued taking it for the remainder of the trip. Submitted by N.V., Muir Beach, California.

* A 35-year-old male with a history of digestive problems presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting after eating sushi during dinner. This condition was immediately diagnosed as food poisoning due to damp-heat in the Intestines. GI Care II was prescribed at 4 grams three times daily until the symptoms resolve. One hour after taking the first dose, the patient felt much better with decreased abdominal pain. After the second dose, all symptoms were completely resolved. Submitted by J.C., Diamond Bar, California.



GI Care II treats gastrointestinal disorders, such as traveler’s diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis and enteritis with clinical manifestations of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea with or without mucus or blood. According to Western medicine, the most common causes of these acute gastrointestinal disorders are infection (bacteria, virus, or parasites), chemical toxins (heavy metals, MSG), and drugs (antibiotics, antihelminthics, cytotoxic agents, colchicine, digoxin, NSAIDs).[5] The purpose of this formula is to simultaneously address both the causes and symptoms of diarrhea, for immediate relief and recovery.

        GI Care II contains herbs with excellent effects to treat the causes and the symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders. Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis), individually or in an herbal formula, exhibits excellent clinical results in treating over 1,000 patients with bacterial dysentery. The treatments are associated with marked effectiveness with low incidence of side effects.[6],[7] Diarrhea can be addressed with many herbs, such as Fu Ling (Poria) and Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae). In a clinical study, 93 infants with diarrhea were treated with Fu Ling (Poria) three times daily. Complete recovery was documented in 79 cases, improvement in 8 cases, and no effect in 6 cases.[8] In another study, 320 infants with diarrhea responded well to treatment with 3 to 4 grams of an herbal powder that contained Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and other herbs.[9]

        Infection is one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, GI Care II uses many herbs with marked antibiotic properties to eradicate the offending micro-organisms. Herbs with antibiotic effects include Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Hou Po (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis), and Fu Ling (Poria).[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16] Of these herbs, Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) and Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis) are the most potent and have the widest spectrum of antibiotic properties. In fact, their effectiveness is comparable to antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, methicillin and cefotaxime.[17]

        Another common reason for gastrointestinal disorders is drug or food poisoning. Ideally, the offending agent should be eliminated to remove the cause of the diarrhea. However, if discontinuation of the implicated drug is not possible, or if the poisonous food has already been absorbed, herbs should be used to remove the buildup of drugs and/or minimize toxicity. Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) is one of the best herbs to treat poisoning from toxic agents, including, but not limited to, drug poisoning (chloral hydrate, urethane, cocaine, picrotoxin, caffeine, pilocarpine, nicotine, barbiturates, mercury and lead), food poisoning (tetrodotoxin, snake, and mushrooms), and others (enterotoxin, herbicides, pesticides). The exact mechanism of this action is unclear, but it is thought to be related to the regulatory effect of Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) on the endocrine and/or hepatic systems.[18],[19],[20]

        In addition to eliminating the causes of gastrointestinal disorders, it is also necessary to prescribe herbs to alleviate the symptoms. Use of Sheng Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens) has been demonstrated by many studies to be one of the safest and most effective ways to relieve nausea and vomiting.[21] Abdominal pain may be relieved with herbs that have analgesic and antispasmodic effects. Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) relieves pain; additional herbs that relieve spasms and cramps of the intestines include Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae Lobatae), Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), and Bai Zhi (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae).[22],[23],[24],[25] According to one clinical trial, these herbs are so effective that 241 out of 254 patients (94.8%) with intestinal spasms showed significant improvement within 3 to 6 days of beginning herbal treatment.[26] To reduce fever and inflammation associated with acute diarrhea, Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae Lobatae), Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), and Zi Su Ye (Folium Perillae) are added for their antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.[27],[28],[29],[30]

        Diarrhea is sometimes accompanied by mucus or blood in the stool, which can be treated with Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) and Wu Bei Zi (Galla Chinensis). Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei), if processed appropriately, has strong properties for treatment of hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis. In this disease syndrome, most patients who take Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) report lessened pain and diminished levels of blood in the stool within two to six doses.[31] Similarly, according to one clinical study on gastrointestinal bleeding, the use of Wu Bei Zi (Galla Chinensis) was over 90% effective in stopping bleeding in 33 patients within nine days.[32]

        In conclusion, GI Care II is a great formula to treat the cause and relieve the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as traveler’s diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, and enteritis.



Gastrointestinal disorders, such as food poisoning, traveler’s diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, and enteritis, are generally caused by ingestion of a foreign substance that causes symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea with foul-smelling stools with burning sensations of the anus, and abdominal pain and discomfort. In Western medicine, these conditions are often treated symptomatically. For example, diarrhea is usually treated with antidiarrheal drugs, such as Lomotil (diphenoxylate) and Imodium (loperamide). Nausea and vomiting are treated with injection of antiemetics, such as Thorazine (chlorpromazine). Lastly, for gastrointestinal infections, antibiotics are used to kill the microorganism. Overall, these gastrointestinal disorders are acute problems that require immediate and aggressive treatments. While drugs are effective to treat the symptoms and the cause, they are likely to consume and weaken the body, therefore requiring a prolonged period of time for complete recovery.

        From traditional Chinese medicine perspectives, these gastrointestinal disorders are considered to be damp-heat in the Intestines. The herbs that treat damp-heat are effective to address both the symptoms and the cause. As described above, these herbs have been shown to have an antiemetic effect to treat nausea and vomiting, an antidiarrheal effect to stop diarrhea, an analgesic effect to relieve pain, a muscle-relaxant effect to alleviate spasms and cramps, and an antibiotic effect to kill the pathogens. In addition to having marked therapeutic effects, these herbs are gentle and are well tolerated by those individuals who are already under a tremendous amount of stress. In short, herbal treatment offer immediate relieve, and facilitate long-term recovery from these gastrointestinal disorders.

        Drugs and herbs are both effective to treat gastrointestinal disorders by addressing both symptoms and cause. In addition to these treatments, it is extremely important to make sure patients receive plenty of rest and fluids, as excessive vomiting and diarrhea may lead to dehydration. Fluids can be replenished orally in most cases, or intravenously in severe cases. Furthermore, because these gastrointestinal disorders are consuming and depleting in nature, it is important to use herbs to strengthen the body and supplement deficiencies once the patients begin the recovery process.


[1] Chan K, Lo AC, Yeung JH, Woo KS. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1995 May;47(5):402-6.

[2] Pharmacotherapy 1999 July;19(7):870-876.

[3] European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 1995; 20(1):55-60.

[4] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988; 140:144.

[5] Fauci, A. et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill Health Professions Division. 1998.

[6] Zhong Hua Nei Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine), 1976; 4: 219.

[7] Si Chuan Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao (Journal of Sichuan School of Medicine), 1959; 1: 102.

[8] Bei Jing Zhong Yi (Beijing Chinese Medicine), 1985; 5:31.

[9] Shan Dong Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Shandong Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1982; 2:107.

[10] Xin Zhong Yi (New Chinese Medicine), 1989; 21(3):51.

[11] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988; 137:140.

[12] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988, 140:144.

[13] Planta med, 1982; 44(2):100.

[14] Yao Jian Gong Zuo Tong Xun (Journal of Herbal Preparations), 1980; 10(4):209.

[15] Xin Hua Ben Cao Gang Mu (New Chinese Materia Medica), 1988; 58.

[16] Zhong Yao Da Ci Dian (Dictionary of Chinese Herbs), 1977; 1596.

[17] J Pharm Pharmacol 2000 Mar; 52(3):361-6.

[18] Zhong Yao Tong Bao (Journal of Chinese Herbology), 1986; 11(10):55.

[19] Xin Zhong Yi (New Chinese Medicine), 1985; 2:34.

[20] Xin Zhong Yi (New Chinese Medicine), 1978; 1:36.

[21] Xin Zhong Yi (New Chinese Medicine), 1986; 12:24.

[22] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 101:103.

[23] Zhong Yao Zhi (Chinese Herbology Journal), 1993; 358.

[24] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 796.

[25] Zhi Wu Yao You Xiao Cheng Fen Shou Ce (Manual of Plant Medicinals and Their Active Constituents), 1986; 624,603,197.

[26] Zhong Hua Wai Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of External Medicine), 1960; 4:354.

[27] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 101:103.

[28] Zhong Yao Zhi (Chinese Herbology Journal), 1993:183.

[29] Zhong Hua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Medicine), 1956; 42(10):964.

[30] Planta Med, 1985; (6):4.

[31] Fu Jian Zhong Yi Yao (Fujian Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1985; 1:36.

[32] Zhe Jiang Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao (Journal of Zhejiang University of Chinese Medicine), 1987; 6:20.