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Gardenia Complex


* Excess conditions with heat and fire in all three jiaos

* Infectious diseases with fever

* Inflammatory conditions with swelling, inflammation, burning sensations and pain

* Disorders with high blood pressure and fast heart rate



* Antibiotic effect to treat infection

* Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects to reduce swelling and relieve pain

* Antihypertensive effect to reduce blood pressure

* Hepatoprotective effect to treat hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

* Cholagogic effect to treat jaundice

* Gastrointestinal effect to decrease production and secretion of stomach acid

* Antipyretic effect to reduce body temperature



* Clears heat

* Purges fire

* Eliminates toxins

* Nourishes yin and tonifies blood



Take 3 to 4 capsules three times daily. Dosage may be increased up to 6 to 8 capsules three times daily in acute cases. This formula should not be taken for more than two months continuously.



Bian Xu (Herba Polygoni Avicularis)

Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri)

Che Qian Zi (Semen Plantaginis)

Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis)

Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae)

Fu Ling (Poria)

Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae)

Geng Mi (Semen Oryzae)

Huang Bo (Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis)

Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae)

Long Dan (Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae)

Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan)

Shan Yao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae)

Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni)

Shi Gao (Gypsum Fibrosum)

Shu Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata)

Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis)

Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae)

Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae)



From traditional Chinese medicine perspectives, “excess” represents conditions with presentations of heat, fire, and toxins in various zang fu organs. From Western medical perspectives, these “excess” conditions are often characterized by infection, inflammation, increased metabolic rate, and hyperactivity of various organ systems, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and others. Though the terminologies are different, these concepts can be integrated together. For example, “Lung heat” generally indicates infection and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract; “Stomach heat” often refers to gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer or acid reflux; “damp-heat in the intestines” corresponds to various types of inflammatory bowel disorders; “damp-heat in the Liver and Gallbladder” suggests hepatitis or jaundice types of disorders; and “heat in the channels and collaterals” implies inflammatory and arthritic conditions affecting the joints. Similarly, herbs that clear heat, purge fire, and eliminate toxins often have antibacterial, antiviral, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects.



Gardenia Complex is designed for conditions manifesting in excess heat and fire in the body. This formula clears heat, purges fire, drains damp-heat, and eliminates toxins from the zang fu organs that are most susceptible to heat invasion, namely the Heart, Liver and Stomach.

        Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) clears heat in all three jiaos. Shi Gao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), and Geng Mi (Semen Oryzae) represent the effect of the classic formula Bai Hu Tang (White Tiger Decoction) to drain yangming Stomach fire. Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri) is a channel-guiding herb to the Liver to enhance Long Dan (Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae) and Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) in sedating Liver fire. Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) and Huang Bo (Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis) are added to clear deficiency heat from the Kidney. Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae), Shu Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata), and Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) are added to tonify the blood and prevent the harsh herbs from damaging Liver blood. Che Qian Zi (Semen Plantaginis), Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis), Bian Xu (Herba Polygoni Avicularis), and Fu Ling (Poria) drain dampness and eliminate heat through urination. Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) nourishes Kidney yin to prevent the herbs that drain dampness from damaging the yin. Shan Yao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae) with Gan Cao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) protect the middle jiao from the harsh heat-clearing herbs and harmonize the formula.

        In summary, Gardenia Complex is an excellent formula to clear excess fire and heat in the body affecting various zang fu organs such as the Heart, Liver and Stomach. Gardenia Complex can also be used with another formula to enhance the overall effect to clear excess fire and heat.



* This formula is contraindicated in patients who have generalized weakness and deficiency. It is also contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing.

* This herbal formula contains herbs that invigorate blood circulation, such as Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis). Therefore, patients who are on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies, such as Coumadin (warfarin), should use this formula with caution, or not at all, as there may be a higher risk of bleeding and bruising.[1],[2],[3]



* Gardenia Complex and Herbal ABX are two formulas with strong and broad-spectrum heat-clearing effects.

§ Gardenia Complex is designed to purge heat in the organs due to internal imbalances or improper dietary intake such as excessive spicy or greasy food or lifestyle (including lack of sleep, and excessive smoking).

§ Herbal ABX clears heat and detoxifies, and is best for infection that is contracted from outside sources, such as influenza or urinary tract infection.

§ Therefore, although both formulas clear heat, their use should still be distinguished.

* Gardenia Complex incorporates numerous antibiotic herbs for two important reasons. First, the use of multiple herbs within an herbal formula has been shown to increase the antibiotic effect more than tenfold. Second, isolated use of single ingredients is often ineffective and increases the risk of development of bacterial and viral resistance.[4] Given these two reasons, it is necessary to combine herbs with appropriate properties to ensure effectiveness in treating the infection and minimizing the potential risk of the micro-organisms developing resistance.


Pulse diagnosis by Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang:

* Big pulse, a thick, expanding, forceful, and fast pulse on all three pulse positions, cun, guan, and chi.



* With lung infection, combine with Respitrol (Heat) or Pinellia XPT.

* With infection of the ear, nose, and throat, add Herbal ENT.

* With acid reflux, stomach ulcer, or duodenal ulcer, combine with GI Care .

* With stomach or intestinal infection, combine with GI Care II.

* With urinary tract infection or damp-heat in the lower jiao, combine with V-Support.

* With hypertension, combine with Gastrodia Complex or Gentiana Complex .

* With psychological disorder or emotional instability with excess nature, combine with Calm or Calm (ES).

* With depression, add Shine or Shine (DS).

* With liver and gallbladder disorders such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and jaundice, add Liver DTX.

* With coronary artery disease, add Circulation.

* With re bi (heat painful obstruction), add Flex (Heat).

* With constipation, add Gentle Lax (Excess).

* With kidney stone, add Dissolve (KS).

* With acne, add Dermatrol (Clear).

* To address any dermatological disorders that are wet in appearance, add Dermatrol (Damp).

* To address any dermatological disorders that are dry in appearance, add Dermatrol (Dry).

* With unknown swelling or hard lesions, add Resolve (AI).

* With inflammation, add Astringent Complex.

* With excessive damp and phlegm, add Pinellia Complex.

* With bacterial infections, add Herbal ABX.

* With viral infections, add Herbal AVR.



Traditional Points:

* Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Neiguan (PC 6), Shousanli (LI 10), Zusanli (ST 36), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Sanyinjiao (SP 6)

* Dazhui (GV 14), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Yuji (LU 10), Waiguan (TH 5), Zhongchong (PC 9), Xiangu (ST 43)

* Bleed Shaoshang (LU 11), Quchi (LI 11), Weizhong (BL 40), and Shixuan.

* Gua-sha can be performed all along the Urinary Bladder channel and medial sides of Weizhong (BL 40) until bruises are apparent. (Note: Gua-sha is the act of scraping the skin with a small board or with a coin after applying oil on the skin).


Classic Master Tung's Points:

* Fever: Dabai (T 22.04). Bleed T1 area with cupping. Bleed before needling for best result.


Master Tung’s Points by Dr. Chuan-Min Wang:

* Excess heat: Huosan (T 66.12)


Balance Method by Dr. Richard Tan:

* Left side: Houxi (SI 3), Xiaohai (SI 8), Taichong (LR 3), Ququan (LR 8)

* Right side: Shaohai (HT 3), Shenmen (HT 7), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zulinqi (GB 41)

* Left and right sides can be alternated from treatment to treatment.

* The above acupuncture prescription is for general inflammation. Please refer to other formulas for acupuncture points depending on each specific condition.


Ear Acupuncture:

* Shenmen, Adrenals, Ear Apex. Use strong stimulation and remove the needles after 15 minutes.


Auricular Medicine by Dr. Li-Chun Huang:

* Elevated body temperature: Thalamus, Brain Stem, Lung, Sympathetic, Endocrine, corresponding points (to the area affected), Tragic Apex and Adrenal Gland. Bleed Ear Apex.

* Excessive sweating: Sympathetic, Thalamus, Heart, Lung, Spleen, Nervous Subcortex

* Hyperhidrosis: Sympathetic, Kidney, Heart, Spleen, Lung, Nervous Subcortex, corresponding points (to the area that is sweating)



* Avoid hot, spicy, and fried foods, which aggravate excess conditions of heat and fire. Foods that are hot in nature such as pepper and lamb should be avoided.

* Foods that are cold in nature may be helpful in expelling fire in the body. These include cucumber, tomato, cactus, celery, and tofu.

* Increase intake of nourishing, cooling foods/roots such as Mexican yam, yam, radishes, potatoes, carrots, melons, cucumbers, beets, turnips, malanga, celeriac, taro, and rutabaga.

* Avoid spicy/pungent/aromatic vegetables such as pepper, garlic, onions, basil, rosemary, cumin, funnel, anise, leeks, chives, scallions, thyme, saffron, wormwood, mustard, chili pepper, and wasabi.



* Avoid stress and stressful situations whenever possible.

* Refrain from alcoholic beverages and cigarette smoking.



* K.B., a 62-year-old patient, presented with a chronic bilateral rash located on her arms. The rash occurred daily with a description of purple and dark in color. Daily lifestyle habits consisted of light alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and eating spicy foods. Other symptoms included pain with itching and peeling of the skin towards the end of the day. The TCM diagnosis was Lung and Liver fire. The practitioner administered Gardenia Complex and Silerex, both at four capsules three times a day. Within two weeks, the patient reported that her skin had completely cleared up. The patient continued with the same herbal combination for an additional two months. Submitted by A.I., Hilo, Hawaii.

* K.B., a 62-year-old female, presented with constant daily fever for two weeks. There were no signs of infection; however, additional symptoms of slight anger, irritability, thirst, and slight red eyes were present. Her blood pressure was 132/72 mmHg. Though the fever was of unknown origin, the TCM diagnosis was Liver fire. Gardenia Complex was administered at four capsules three times daily. The fever cleared in two days and did not return. Her anger and irritability had also lessened. Submitted by A.I., Hilo, Hawaii.

* J.P., a 59-year-old male, presented with tooth pain located within the right molar. It was also noted that the patient had an infected gum in the same area. Objective finding was a red swollen jaw. The TCM diagnosis was Stomach heat; Western diagnosis was gum infection as well as gingivitis. Upon diagnosis the patient was prescribed Gardenia Complex. After one week of taking the herbs, the infection had resolved. Submitted by M.P., Muskego, Wisconsin.



Interpreting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Readings:

Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang, author of Pulsynergy and creator of this formula, explains that excess heat can be defined by the objective findings of fast heart rate and high blood pressure. This formula is designed for any condition with the finding of high blood pressure and fast heart rate. The following is an article written by Dr. Chang entitled: “Interpreting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Readings by Eight Principle Diagnostic Standards.”

        Whether approached by a seasoned practitioner or a novice, there are always cases that are difficult to differentiate and diagnose based on the classic Ba Gang Bian Zheng (Eight Principle Differentiation). When a patient presents complex symptoms, it is not always easy to sort out the tangle to come up with a confident, simple diagnosis and herbal prescription. Maybe the patient is taking one or more pharmaceuticals that complicate the clinical presentation, so that it is difficult to know which symptoms are true and which ones are side effects of the drug(s). Alternatively, maybe the patient is just not telling their entire history or complaints for one reason or another.

        Conversely, maybe the difficulty in reaching a diagnosis is because the patient is describing too many symptoms, whether related to the chief complaint or not. In other cases, contradictory elements are in play, such as when a patient exhibits all excess signs but states that he or she suffers from chronic fatigue syndrome. On the other hand, maybe they feel cold, but their pulse is forceful and rapid, and their tongue is extremely red, with a definite yellow coating. One way or another, subjective complaints from patients may not always point to an immediate correct diagnosis.

        One objective way to find out exactly whether the patient is truly suffering from deficiency, excess, heat or cold is to measure the blood pressure and the heart rate. Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang uses this method daily on all of his patients and has confirmed its practical usefulness through thousands of cases in his 30+ years of practice. Below is a brief summary of the patterns representing the most commonly seen complex types in the clinic.


Four Types of Blood Pressure + Heart Rate:

* Type 1: Systolic (High) + Diastolic (High) + Heart Rate (Fast) = Excess Heat. Patients with both high blood pressure and a fast heart rate are, without exception, suffering from an excess heat condition. Please note that these patients may complain that they are tired and depressed. However, if they have high blood pressure and a fast heart rate, tonic herbs should never be used, despite the fact that the patient complains of tiredness. The diagnosis is excess fire, which should be addressed with heat-clearing herbs.

* Type 2: Systolic (Low) + Diastolic (Low) + Heart Rate (Slow) = Yang Deficiency. Patients who have low blood pressure and a slow heart rate are experiencing deficiency, mostly qi or yang deficiency. These deficiencies are best helped by tonic herbs; never give these patients purging and sedating herbs.

* Type 3: Systolic (High) + Diastolic (Normal) + Heart Rate (Slow) = Deficiency Heat + Blood Stasis. Patients who belong to this category usually suffer from blood stasis, which may be the result of an old injury or surgery. The heart rate is slow because of blood stasis and obstruction of the flow. In turn, systolic pressure is increased, as the body attempts to maintain balance. The increased pressure and lack of flow result in heat from deficiency. Carefully selecting appropriate blood-moving and stasis-resolving herbs with herbs to clear deficiency heat will be the most helpful strategy for treating these patients.

* Type 4: Systolic (Low) + Diastolic (Low) + Heart Rate (Fast) = Yin Deficiency Heat. The last group might appear to reflect heat because of the rapid heart rate, but the low blood pressure tells a different story: the insufficient quantities of blood and yin in circulation require a rapid heart rate to maintain positive circulation. This is similar to a car engine running with insufficient oil: eventually, heat begins to build up from the deficiency of lubricating yin. These patients are suffering from yin deficiency heat, and must be treated with herbs that tonify yin and sedate the deficiency heat.



This approach provides a guideline to follow when confronted with a confusing presentation in the patient. Tongue and pulse diagnoses should be combined with this approach to reach an accurate diagnostic conclusion. Here is an example of a recent case that was addressed using this method:

        A 45-year-old female states that she suffers from chronic fatigue syndrome, is extremely tired, and has no energy even for driving or simple activities. She complains of how stressful life is, how depressed she feels, and states that everything in life is “just not right.” Tonic herbs might be the first approach that comes to mind. However, the objective findings of her blood pressure (170/120 mmHg) and heart rate (110 beats per minute) suggest otherwise. It is important to look at the tongue and take the pulse to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. If the tongue is red and the pulse rapid, then the patient’s complaint of tiredness and fatigue can be ruled out. In this particular case, it would be important to avoid using a warming, drying tonic formula like Vitality or Venus. Heat-clearing formulas like Gardenia Complex and Herbal ABX would appropriately provide sedation for this patient. Although it seems wrong on the surface of things to use a sedating formula for someone identifying herself as having chronic fatigue syndrome, this would be the correct and effective approach.

        Please remember that this is a guideline to follow when the presentation of the illness is complicated and confusing. It is important to gather all the details (signs, symptoms, tongue diagnosis, pulse diagnosis, and objective readings of blood pressure and heart rate) so the diagnosis will be accurate.


Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Chart for Ba Gang Bian Zheng (Eight Principle Differentiation):










Type 1




Excess Heat

Heat-Clearing Herbs

Type 2




Yang Deficiency

Tonic Herbs

Type 3




Deficient heat +

Blood stasis

Blood moving herbs +

Deficiency heat-clearing herbs

Type 4




Yin deficiency heat

Tonify yin and sedate deficiency heat



Gardenia Complex is designed to treat all excess conditions, including presentations of heat, fire, and toxins in various zang fu organs. From Western medical perspectives, these disorders are often characterized by infection, inflammation, and hyperactivity of various organ systems. As such, Gardenia Complex has an extremely broad range of action, and may be used to treat many disorders.

        Infection is a common presentation of heat, fire and toxins. Gardenia Complex contains many herbs with marked antibiotic effects to treat many types of infections, such as bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Among herbs with marked antibiotic effects are Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae),[5] Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae),[6],[7] Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri),[8] Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan),[9] Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae),[10] Long Dan (Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae),[11] and Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni).[12] In terms of clinical applications, these herbs have been used to treat various types of infections throughout the body, including, but not limited to, diseases such as common cold and influenza,[13] infectious hepatitis,[14] pneumonia,[15] bronchitis,[16] and encephalitis.[17]

        Inflammatory conditions with swelling, inflammation, burning sensations and pain are also presentations of heat and fire. Many herbs in Gardenia Complex have a marked anti-inflammatory effect to treat such conditions, such as Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri),[18] Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae),[19] Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni),[20] Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae),[21] and Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan).[22] Clinically, these herbs have been used with great success to treat various inflammatory conditions, including but not limited to, lymphadenitis, cellulitis, and erysipelas.[23] Furthermore, many of these herbs also have an analgesic effect to relieve pain, such as Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri) and Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae), which are beneficial for treatment of arthritis and rheumatism.[24],[25],[26]

        Cardiovascular diseases are also considered excess in nature, such as hypertension and coronary artery disease. Gardenia Complex contains many herbs with a marked antihypertensive effect, such as Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae),[27] Huang Bo (Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis),[28] Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan),[29] and Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae).[30] Though their mechanisms of action differ, they have all been shown to reduce blood pressure. According to one study, use of Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) three times daily was effective in treating 51 patients with hypertension.[31] According to another study, administration of Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) effectively lowered blood pressure within five days among 20 patients with hypertension.[32] Furthermore, Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) and Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) have cardiovascular effects to increase blood perfusion to the coronary arteries, decrease cardiac output and decrease load on the left ventricle.[33],[34] These actions offer a protective effect against ischemia of the heart and coronary artery disorders.[35]

        Liver and gallbladder disorders, such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and jaundice, are often diagnosed as damp-heat in traditional Chinese medicine. Gardenia Complex incorporates many herbs with marked effects to treat these types of disorders. Pharmacologically, Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) and Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) are two herbs with excellent hepatoprotective effects.[36],[37] Clinically, Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae), Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri), and Long Dan (Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae) have all been used with great success to treat hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.[38],[39],[40],[41] Furthermore, Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae), Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri), Long Dan (Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae), and Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae) all have a cholagogic effect to stimulate the production of bile, enhance contraction of the gallbladder, increase excretion of bile into the intestines, and may be used to treat jaundice.[42],[43],[44]

        Hyperacidity of the stomach is also a presentation of heat and fire rising upwards and damaging the surrounding area. Hyperacidity of the stomach may present in such diseases as acid reflux, belching, stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Lastly, Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) decreases the secretion of gastric acid and increases pH in the stomach.[45]

        Hyperactivity of the central nervous system is another presentation of excess, and may be treated with herbs in Gardenia Complex. Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) has an inhibitory effect on the central nervous system to decrease spontaneous activity, increase sleeping time, and decrease body temperature.[46] Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri) has a sedative effect and prolongs sleeping time induced by barbiturates.[47]

        Fever is one of the most typical symptoms of heat, and may be treated effectively with heat-clearing herbs in this formula. Many herbs in this formula have an excellent antipyretic effect to reduce fever and lower body temperature, such as Shi Gao (Gypsum Fibrosum),[48] Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae),[49] and Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae).[50]

        In summary, Gardenia Complex has an extremely broad range of action, and may be used to treat many disorders characterized by fever, infection, inflammation, pain, and hyperactivity of various organ systems, such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, and gastrointestinal systems.



One striking difference between Western and traditional Chinese medicine is that Western medicine focuses and excels in crisis management, while traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes and shines in holistic and preventative treatments. Therefore, in emergencies, such as gunshot wounds or surgery, Western medicine is generally the treatment of choice. However, for treatment of chronic idiopathic illness of unknown origins, where all lab tests are normal and a clear diagnosis cannot be made, traditional Chinese medicine is distinctly superior.

        In cases of general presentations of inflammation, increased metabolism and elevated body temperature, where there are definite signs and symptoms of illness but not a clear diagnosis, Western medicine offers few treatment options. Under these circumstances, traditional Chinese medicine is beneficial as it excels in regulating imbalances and alleviating associated signs and symptoms. Therefore, herbal therapy should definitely be employed to prevent deterioration of this condition, and to restore optimal health. Because this formula has a broad spectrum of therapeutic effect (including antipyretic, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory effects), it treats a wide variety of disorders. If a specific imbalance can be identified, treatment is most effective if this formula is combined with another formula that targets the identified imbalance.


[1] Chan K, Lo AC, Yeung JH, Woo KS. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1995 May;47(5):402-6.

[2] Pharmacotherapy 1999 July;19(7):870-876.

[3] European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 1995; 20(1):55-60.

[4] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988; 140:144.

[5] Zhong Yao Zhi (Chinese Herbology Journal), 1984; 578.

[6] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 115:119.

[7] Yao Xue Qing Bao Tong Xun (Journal of Herbal Information), 1987; 5(4):62.

[8] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 103:106.

[9] Zhong Yao Cai (Study of Chinese Herbal Material), 1991; 14(2):41.

[10] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988; 137:140.

[11] Zhong Yao Da Ci Dian (Dictionary of Chinese Herbs), 1977; 2032.

[12] CA, 1953; 47:12652g.

[13] Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1985; 12:13.

[14] Xin Yi Yao Xue Za Zhi (New Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1974; 2:18.

[15] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 105.

[16] Zhong Guo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine), 1984; 4:222.

[17] Xin Yi Xue (New Medicine), 1972; 8:11.

[18] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 888.

[19] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 400.

[20] Chang Yong Zhong Yao Cheng Fen Yu Yao Li Shou Ce (A Handbook of the Composition and Pharmacology of Common Chinese Drugs), 1994; 368:376.

[21] Chem Pharm Bull, 1984; 32(7):2724.

[22] Sheng Yao Xue Za Zhi (Journal of Raw Herbology), 1979; 33(3):178.

[23] Zhong Hua Wai Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of External Medicine), 1960; 4:366.

[24] Si Chuan Zhong Yi (Sichuan Chinese Medicine), 1988; 9:11.

[25] Shen Yang Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao (Journal of Shenyang University of Medicine), 1984; 1(3):214.

[26] Ji Lin Zhong Yi Yao (Jilin Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1992; (1):16.

[27] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1988; 137:140.

[28] Zhong Guo Yao Li Xue Tong Bao (Journal of Chinese Herbal Pharmacology), 1989; 10(5):385.

[29] Guo Wai Yi Xue Zhong Yi Zhong Yao Fen Ce (Monograph of Chinese Herbology from Foreign Medicine), 1983; (3):5,1984;(5):54.

[30] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 934.

[31] Shang Hai Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1956; 1:24.

[32] Liao Ning Yi Xue Za Zhi (Liaoning Journal of Medicine), 1960; (7):48.

[33] Guo Wai Yi Xue Zhong Yi Zhong Yao Fen Ce (Monograph of Chinese Herbology from Foreign Medicine), 1983; (3):5,1984;(5):54.

[34] Shan Xi Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanxi Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1984; 13(4):359.

[35] Zhong Ji Yi Kan (Medium Medical Journal); 4:19.

[36] Yun Nan Yi Yao (Yunan Medicine and Herbology), 1991; 12(5):304.

[37] Ri Ben Yao Wu Xue Za Zhi (Japan Journal of Pharmacology), 1957; 53(6):215.

[38] Xin Yi Yao Xue Za Zhi (New Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1974; 2:18.

[39] Xin Yi Yao Xue Za Zhi (New Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1974; 2:18.

[40] Shang Hai Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1965; 4:4.

[41] Zhong Hua Nei Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine), 1978; 2:127.

[42] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 934.

[43] Zhong Yi Yao Xue Bao (Report of Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1988; (1):45.

[44] Ri Ben Yao Wu Xue Za Zhi (Japan Journal of Pharmacology), 1957; 53(6):215.

[45] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 934.

[46] Jiang Su Yi Yao (Jiangsu Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1976; (1):28.

[47] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 888.

[48] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 115:119.

[49] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 115:119.

[50] Zhong Hua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Medicine), 1956; 42(10):964.