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Dissolve (KS) ô

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

* Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)

* Urolithiasis (bladder stones)

* Painful urinationwith difficulty initiating or maintaining a good urinary stream; sudden stopping or blockage of urination with passage of a stone(s); lower abdominal pain

* Renal coliccharacterized by excruciating, one-sided, intermittent pain in the flank area that spreads across the abdomen and to the genital area and inner thigh

 

WESTERN THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS

* Dissolves and drains stones

* Diuretic effect to promote urination and passage of stones

* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects to relieve pain from blockage of tubes and ducts

 

CHINESE THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS

* Dissolves stones

* Treats dysuria due to shi lin (stone dysuria)

* Promotes normal urination

* Relieves spasms and pain

 

DOSAGE

Take 3 to 4 capsules three times daily on an empty stomach, with two glasses of warm water. Dosage may be increased up to 6 to 8 capsules three times daily, when necessary. Patients should continue to take these herbs until the stones are dissolved or passed out in the urine. For maintenance purposes, herbs can be taken at 1 to 2 capsules a day for six months to prevent the formation of new stones.

 

INGREDIENTS


Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan)

Fu Ling (Poria)

Hai Jin Sha (Spora Lygodii)

Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae)

Shi Wei (Folium Pyrrosiae)

Wei Ling Xian (Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis)

Yan Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis)

Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis)

Zhi Qiao (Fructus Aurantii)

Zhu Ling (Polyporus)


 

BACKGROUND

Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) and/or urolithiasis (bladder stones) are formed when there is an increased accumulation or decreased elimination of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. As these substances harden to form stones, they cause pain, nausea, vomiting, hematuria and infection. Optimal treatment requires dissolution and draining of stones, alleviation of the symptoms and complications, and prevention of future kidney stones.

 

FORMULA EXPLANATION

Dissolve (KS) is an effective formula to dissolve and facilitate the passage of kidney and bladder stones, relieve pain and promote normal urination.

††††††† According to traditional Chinese medicine, kidney and urinary stones are known as ďshi lin,Ē which literally means dysuria due to stones. Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae), Hai Jin Sha (Spora Lygodii), and Shi Wei (Folium Pyrrosiae), are three principle herbs used in this formula to dissolve and pass the stones. Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae) dissolves stones and helps to clear damp-heat in the lower jiao to relieve burning dysuria. Hai Jin Sha (Spora Lygodii) dissolves and dispels stones. Hai Jin Sha (Spora Lygodii) also reduces swelling caused by obstruction. Shi Wei (Folium Pyrrosiae) softens and dissolves stones.

††††††† Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis), Zhu Ling (Polyporus) and Fu Ling (Poria) are diuretic herbs used here to facilitate the passage and elimination of stones. Together, they promote urination, flush out the stones, and reduce edema and/or water retention in the body caused by kidney stone obstruction.

††††††† Zhi Qiao (Fructus Aurantii) relieves the distension and pressure caused by kidney stones by activating qi circulation. It also breaks up stagnant qi to resolve accumulations in the abdomen. Wei Ling Xian (Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis) is one of the strongest herbs to enter and open all the channels and collaterals in the body. With its penetrating characteristics, it breaks up stagnation to relieve pain caused by obstruction.

††††††† To relieve pain, Yan Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis) and Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) are added to the formula. Yan Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis) is one of the strongest analgesic herbs for pain relief, while Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) has an antispasmodic effect to relieve spasms of the smooth muscle of the ureter.

††††††† Together, the herbs in Dissolve (KS) effectively treat the cause and the symptoms of kidney and bladder stones.

 

CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

* This formula is not suitable for stones that are too big to be passed. Surgical intervention may be the treatment of choice for acute pain associated with stones greater than 2.5 cm in diameter.

* Patients with kidney infection or acute pain from the kidney stone should seek medical help immediately.

* This formula is contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing.

 

CLINICAL NOTES

* Patients with kidney stones may be asymptomatic. They may or may not experience pain, bleeding, obstruction of urine flow or any sign of infection. Patients who are asymptomatic but have stones may take this formula to dissolve kidney stones.

* Kidney stones without pain usually indicate that the stone is still in the kidney. When pain is experienced in the flank area, radiating across the abdomen down to the genitals, it is an indication that the stone is passing or is obstructed in its passage from the kidney to the ureter.

* If the stones are too big to pass through the ureter and urethra, sonic wave therapy (lithotripsy) is one treatment option to break the stones into smaller fragments, in combination with taking the herbal formula to facilitate elimination. The patient should drink plenty of fluids regularly to help flush stone fragments out of the kidney and urinary tract.

* If the stones are too big to pass through the ureter and urethra, and are causing severe pain, surgery may be the best treatment option, as herbal treatment may require a prolonged period of time to show effectiveness.

* If the stones are small enough to pass through the urinary ducts, the patient may begin taking this formula. Some patients may feel slight pain or discomfort during this process, as the herbs work to dispel the stones. Continue taking the herbs until the stones pass out of the body.

* Pain associated with kidney stones may occur after rigorous exercise that promotes movement of the stone.

* Back pain due to kidney stones should be differentiated from sprain, strain or trauma. Colicky pain due to kidney stones is usually one-sided, and radiates across the abdomen down to the genitals. Patients with sprain and strain will report that the pain is due to trauma or over-exertion. Reports from current X-rays or other imaging can also provide a clue to the cause of the pain.

* Recurrence of kidney stones may be prevented by taking Dissolve (KS) 2 to 3 capsules, once a day.

 

Pulse Diagnosis by Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang:

* Birdís beak / pen tip pulse, a convex-shaped pulse that is approximately 0.1 cm in length that feels like a penís tip, on the deep level of either left or right chi. Detection of this pulse on the left chi indicates kidney stones in the left ureter; on the right chi indicates stones in the right ureter. If there is also inflammation, the pulse will be forceful.

 

SUPPLEMENTARY FORMULAS

* For kidney or bladder stones with infection and inflammation, use with Herbal ABX.

* For burning dysuria, dark yellow urine, urinary tract infection, use with V-Support.

* For kidney or bladder stones with edema, use with Herbal DRX.

* For excess heat or fever, add Gardenia Complex.

* For hypertension, use Gastrodia Complex or Gentiana Complex

* For flank or back pain and spasms, use with Flex (SC).

* To relieve pain, use with Herbal ANG.

* For bleeding, add Notoginseng 9.

* For chronic nephritis, chronic nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria, use Kidney DTX instead.

 

ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT

Traditional Points:

* Needle and strongly stimulate Quanliao (SI 18) and Yangchi (TH 4).

* Shenshu (BL 23), Yaoyan (Extra 9), Renzhong (GV 26), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongji (CV 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6)

 

Classic Master Tung's Points:

* Liukuai (T 1010.16), Qikuai (T 1010.17), Shuiyu (T 44.17), Sanshen (T 44.27)*, Majinshui (T 1010.13), Makuaishui (T 1010.14), Tianhuang (T 77.17), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21). Bleed dark veins on or nearby Liukuai (T 1010.16), Qikuai (T 1010.17), Shuiyu (T 44.17). Bleed before needling for best result.

 

Master Tungís Points by Dr. Chuan-Min Wang:

* Kidney stones: Bleed Xiaquan (T 88.20), Zhongquan (T 88.21), Shangquan (T 88.22) or Shuizhong (T DT.13), Shuifu (T DT.14). Needle Majinshui (T 1010.13), Makuaishui (T 1010.14).

 

Balance Method by Dr. Richard Tan:

* Left side: Chengshan (BL 57), Jinggu (BL 64), Chize (LU 5) or ah shi points nearby, Kongzui (LU 6) or ah shi points nearby

* Right side: Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Rangu (KI 2), Dazhong (KI 4), Fuliu (KI 7), Zhubin (KI 9), Hegu (LI 4), Kidney point on the ear

* Sides can be alternated between treatments.

 

Ear Acupuncture:

* Kidney, Abdomen, Sympathetic, Subcortex. Stimulate these points strongly for 20 to 40 minutes.

* Kidney, Ureter, Urethra. Needle bilaterally.

 

Auricular Medicine by Dr. Li-Chun Huang:

* Ureter, Kidney, Bladder, Sympathetic, Nervous Subcortex, External Abdomen, Shenmen, Lower Jiao, San Jiao. Bleed Ear Apex.

 

NUTRITION

* Patients with calcium stones should refrain from eating foods containing high amounts of oxalates, such as rhubarb, spinach (especially in combination with calcium-rich foods), nuts, cocoa, tea, and pepper. These foods contribute to calcium stone formation in the body.

* Patients with uric acid stones should refrain from foods that increase the level of uric acid in the urine, such as meat, poultry, pork, liver, beef, sardines, meat broth, clams, crabs, peas, various beans, cauliflower, coffee and tea.

* Patients who are prone to forming kidney stones should drink eight to ten glasses of water a day. Chronic dehydration increases the risk of stone formation.

* Potassium citrate makes the urine more alkaline, and helps to flush out uric acid. Fruits and vegetables should be increased, while protein, eggs, and milk should be reduced in the diet.

* Vitamin A is essential to prevent formation and deposit of stones in the kidneys. Increase the consumption of foods high in vitamin A, such as carrots, yams, apricots, peaches, and mango.

 

The Tao of Nutrition by Dr. Maoshing Ni and Cathy McNease:

* Recommendations: corn-silk, water chestnuts, seaweed, beet tops, watermelon, celery, watercress, winter melon, pearl barley, walnuts, watermelon rind, winter melon rind, green tea powder, and distilled water.

* Drink celery, carrot, watermelon and water chestnut juice.

* Drink cornsilk tea for water; three to five glasses daily.

* Drink tea from beet tops, winter melon rind, and watermelon rind.

* Take two teaspoons ground walnuts in cornsilk tea.

* Take one teaspoon green tea powder in warm water three times daily.

* After consuming any of the above diuretics remedies, do some mild jumping exercise to help loosen up the stones.

* Avoid spicy foods, fried foods, oily foods, coffee, hard water, spinach, citrus, tomatoes, spinach combined with tofu or dairy products.

 

LIFESTYLE INSTRUCTIONS

* Patients should drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out the stones.

* Patients should urinate whenever necessary (or more frequently than usual, if they do not feel strong urges to urinate), and not hold their urine.

* Sitz-baths may be helpful if there is shooting pain in the kidney and bladder areas with fever and chills. However, if the condition is not alleviated, the patient should seek medical help immediately to rule out kidney infection.

 

CASE STUDIES

* A 42-year-old male computer specialist presented with pain indicative of kidney stones. The patientís medical doctor suggested immediate surgery. The patient was placed on a treatment plan with Dissolve (KS) for ten days. He was checked by his medical doctor two weeks later and discovered that the stones were completely gone. The practitioner also commented that many of her colleagues have used Dissolve (KS) on their patients with similar results. Submitted by C.B., Santa Barbara, California.

* A 38-year-old female had a 20-year history of kidney stones. Her kidney stone condition had a familiar cycle that started with low back pain, retention of urine, and ended with passing of a stone five to six months later. She was in her first two weeks of the cycle when she came for treatment. Her condition included low back pain, edema in her lower legs, swollen eyes, retention of urine, and night sweats. Her Western medical diagnosis was kidney stones with pyelonephritis. Her TCM diagnosis was Kidney yang deficiency. After taking Dissolve (KS) for three days, her condition began to improve. Edema in the lower legs disappeared with only slight swelling in the eyes. Night sweats and tearing in the eyes resolved. Her low back pain diminished. Furthermore, her lab analysis tested negative for any presence of kidney stones. Submitted by M.J., Brooklyn, New York.

* D.B., a 43-year-old male, presented with kidney stones which he had been diagnosed with five years prior. Pain was described as severe and gripping in the abdomen area. His blood pressure was 125/85 mmHg and the heart rate was 84 beats per minute. The practitioner diagnosed his condition as shi lin (stone dysuria) with damp-heat. After taking Dissolve (KS) at 3 grams twice daily, the patientís pain diminished within a few hours of starting the formula. Dietary and lifestyle recommendations were also given. The patient had experienced passing of several stones over the first 24 hours without extreme pain but mild discomfort. He has needed to use Dissolve (KS) occasionally; however, there was a significant difference in pain reduction and recurrence. Submitted by B.E., Reno, Nevada.

* M.E., a 58-year-old male, presented with lower back pain of severity leading to impaired mobility. Recent diagnostic imaging had revealed the patient had kidney stones. The practitioner diagnosed this condition as Urinary Bladder damp-heat and prescribed Dissolve (KS). After taking the herbs, the patient reported a significant reduction in symptoms; however, he has not had any further diagnostic testing to determine whether they are completely gone. He has had a history of tumors in his lungs, so he is constantly being evaluated for his ongoing medical condition. The patient had refused acupuncture treatment and he didnít think he believed in Chinese Medicine. However, after taking Dissolve (KS), he has become a convert to Chinese Medicine. He works as an engineer and is no longer immobilized by pain. Submitted by M.M., Burlington, Wisconsin.

* A 72-yr-old patient (a former nurse) had a long history of kidney stones and kidney infections. In 1979, she had surgery to remove a kidney stone "the size of a small gumball." This was before laproscopic or arthroscopic surgery, so it was quite an ordeal for her, and appeared to have caused significant trauma to her kidneys. She described the surgery as "slitting open her entire left side and cutting open the kidney.Ē She was hospitalized for a long time and also developed a staph infection. In recent years, she continued to have recurrent stones in both kidneys (a combination of calcium phosphate and oxalate stones) despite lithotripsy treatment. In the last five months, she was treated with Dissolve (KS), Herbal ABX and Kidney DTX. These formulas completely dissolved her latest kidney stones and significantly reduced the frequency of kidney infections. Submitted by S.B., Palmer, Alaska.

* A 21-year-old female art gallery manager complained of kidney pain, which was severe at times. Other symptoms included lumbar pain and heat. The diagnosis for her case was renal lithiasis. After taking Dissolve (KS) for six months, there was a complete cessation of the heat sensation and pain. Submitted by D.K., Forestville, California.

* A female came to the practitionerís office for treatment of kidney stones. A chronic low back pain condition had plagued the patient for five years, shuffling in and out of the emergency room and being treated with painkillers. The practitioner prescribed Dissolve (KS) formula along with two homeopathic compositions. Within 36 hours, she was able to pass a kidney stone. Another patient with the same condition was given the same treatment protocol. Again, a kidney stone was passed within the same time frame. Submitted by I.B., Miami, Florida.

* A 73-year-old female veterinarian presented with severe low back and abdominal pain due to renal calculi [kidney stone]. There was redness and swelling over the right kidney on her back. Tenderness over the right kidney region was also noted upon palpation. The pain referred along the belt channel, which traveled around the lower abdomen. The patientís pulse was wiry, particularly on the right side with the kidney pulse weak but tight. The practitioner diagnosed the condition as Kidney deficiency resulting in damp-heat in the lower jiao along with qi obstruction. After the patient took Dissolve (KS) for 4 weeks, she began experiencing a cessation of pain and an increased urine flow. Subsequent X-ray findings showed a decrease in size of stones in her right kidney, the site that originally contained much larger and a higher number of renal calculi. There was no apparent change in the stones in her left kidney. Upon discontinuing treatment of Dissolve (KS), the severe pain returned and urination again became scanty. The patient re-started her treatment with Dissolve (KS), which immediately stopped the pain and an easy urine flow resumed. The patientís condition continued to fluctuate before it finally returned to some form of normalcy three months later. Submitted by V.W., Princeville, Hawaii.

* A 25-year-old male computer technician presented with left-sided low back pain radiating to the left testicle. There was also frequent painful urination with dribbling. The symptoms had been present for six days. Kidney stones tested positive by way of Computerized Electrodermal Screening (EAV). The practitioner diagnosed the condition as damp-heat in the lower jiao. After three days of taking Dissolve (KS) at 3 capsules three times daily with meals, the low back pain and dysuria were completely relieved. Frequency of urination and dribbling were also resolved. Application of Dissolve (KS) appeared to have accelerated the patientís recovery. Submitted by D.H., Fort Myers, Florida.

* A female patient presented with severe right-sided lumbar pain that she described as Ďcuttingí in nature. She also had frequent, painful and yellow urination. The western diagnosis was kidney stones; the TCM diagnosis was lin zheng (dysuria syndrome), with damp-heat in the Urinary Bladder. After two bottles of Dissolve (KS) and Ba Zheng San (Eight-Herb Powder for Rectification), the pain subsided and urine was clear. The patient felt some stones may have passed in her urine. Submitted by M.C., Sarasota, Florida.

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Dissolve (KS) is formulated specifically to treat nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) and/or urolithiasis (bladder stones). It contains herbs that have shown great effectiveness for dissolving stones and promoting urination to flush out stones.

††††††† Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) is a diuretic herb with great effect to dissolve and flush out stones. According to one study, one preparation of Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) extract significantly inhibits urinary calcium oxalate stone formation induced by ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride.[1] According to another study, Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) inhibits the renal stone formation by down-regulating the bikunin mRNA expression and decreasing the calcium oxalate formation in the kidney.[2] To further promote normal urination and facilitate drainage of stones, many herbs with diuretic benefits are used. Fu Ling (Poria) and Zhu Ling (Polyporus) have diuretic effects, causing significant increases in urine output.[3],[4] In addition, the use of Zhu Ling (Polyporus) is also associated with increased excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium.[5],[6] Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae) is another excellent herb to prevent and treat kidney andbladder stones. Pharmacologically, the aqueous extract of Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae) has a potent effect to reduce plasma levels of uric acid in hyperuricemia in subjects pretreated with oxonate.[7] Clinically, the decoction of Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae) is effective in preventing and treating urinary stones, with better action against kidney stonesthan bladder stones.[8] Furthermore, according to a clinical study, seven patients with stones in the urinary tract were treated with an herbal formula containing Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae), Hai Jin Sha (Spora Lygodii), and others. After ten days of herbal treatment, stones were eliminated in all patients.[9]

††††††† Dissolve (KS) contains herbs that reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) has obvious anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities,[10] and has been used successfully to treat pain associated with blockage of tubes and ducts, such as pain in the testicles,[11] hydrocele testis,[12] blocked fallopian tubes,[13] and acute and chronic cholecystitis.[14] Wei Ling Xian (Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis) exhibits its anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators.[15] Yan Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis) demonstrates a strong analgesic effect to relieve pain and a marked anti-inflammatory effect to reduce swelling and inflammation.[16],[17]

††††††† Dissolve (KS) also has herbs to treat infection. Jin Qian Cao (Herba Lysimachiae) has an antibiotic effect as it inhibits the growth of numerous bacteria.[18] Fu Ling (Poria) has a bacteriostatic effect.[19] Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) also has significant antibacterial activity.[20] Lastly, 50 patients with urinary tract infection (40 with acute and 10 with chronic infection) were treated with an herbal formula with complete recovery in 48 cases. The herbal formula contained Shi Wei (Folium Pyrrosiae) and others, and was administered in decoction daily for a range of 3 to 15 packs.[21]

††††††† In summary, Dissolve (KS) is an herbal formula with many herbs that treat the cause of kidney and bladder stones, manage the symptoms and the complications. Dissolve (KS) may be taken in larger doses for treatment of stones, or lower doses for prevention.

 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Urinary stones (kidney and bladder stones) are two conditions that often occur together. In Western medicine, if these two conditions are asymptomatic, treatment may not be necessary, as risks often outweigh the benefits. If symptomatic, alkalinization of the urine may be effective for uric acid stones, but not for other types of stones. In most cases, urinary stones (kidney and bladder stones) can only be treated with invasive treatments such as surgery or ultrasound disruption therapy.

††††††† Kidney and bladder stones are two conditions that are successfully treated with herbs. The mechanisms of action of herbs are to dissolve and expel stones from the kidney and urinary bladder. Herbal therapies are effective to treat and to prevent stones. Depending on the number and size of the stones, the duration of treatment ranges from days to months. Nonetheless, use of herbs should be limited to individuals with mild to moderate cases of kidney and bladder stones. If there is acute manifestations, or if herbal therapy is ineffective after three months, then patients should be referred to Western medicine for surgery or ultrasound disruption therapy.

 



[1] Cao ZG, Liu JH, Radman AM, Wu JZ, Ying CP, Zhou SW. An experimental study of effect of different extracts of Alisma orientalis on urinary calcium oxalate stones formation in rats. Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Nov;28(11):1072-5.

[2] Cao ZG, Liu JH, Zhou SW, Wu W, Yin CP, Wu JZ. The effects of the active constituents of Alisma orientalis on renal stone formation and bikunin expression in rat urolithiasis model. Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Aug 2;84(15):1276-9.

[3] Chang Yong Zhong Yao Cheng Fen Yu Yao Li Shou Ce (A Handbook of the Composition and Pharmacology of Common Chinese Drugs), 1994; 1383:1391.

[4] Sheng Yao Xue Za Zhi (Journal of Raw Herbology), 1982; 36(2):150.

[5] Yao Xue Xue Bao (Journal of Herbology), 1964; 11(12):815.

[6] Zhang G, Zeng X, Han L, Wei JA, Huang H. Diuretic activity and kidney medulla AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, V2R expression of the aqueous extract of sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus FRIES in normal rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):433-7.

[7] Wang HD, Ge F, Guo YS, Kong LD. Effects of aqueous extract in herba of Lysimachia christinae on hyperuricemia in mice. State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Dec;27(12):939-41, 944.

[8] Guang Xi Zhong Yi Yao (Guangxi Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1990; 13(6):40.

[9] Zhe Jiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Zhejiang Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1983; (11):493.

[10] Xie F, Zhang M, Zhang CF, Wang ZT, Yu BY, Kou JP. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract and two limonoids from Melia toosendan fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 May 22;117(3):463-6.

[11] Zhong Yao Lin Chuan Xin Yong (New Clinical Applications of Chinese Medicine), 2001; 69.

[12] Zhong Yao Lin Chuan Xin Yong (New Clinical Applications of Chinese Medicine), 2001; 70.

[13] Shang Hai Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1992; (3):19.

[14] Zhong Yao Lin Chuan Xin Yong (New Clinical Applications of Chinese Medicine), 2001; 68.

[15] Park EK, Ryu MH, Kim YH, Lee YA, Lee SH, Woo DH, Hong SJ, Han JS, Yoo MC, Yang HI, Kim KS. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. East-West Bone and Joint Research Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-1 dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):142-7.

[16] Huang JY, Fang M, Li YJ, Ma YQ, Cai XH. Analgesic effect of Corydalis yanhusuo in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Department of Stomatology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Sep;30(9):2161-4.

[17] Kubo M, Matsuda H, Tokuoka K, Ma S, Shiomoto H. Anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic extract and alkaloidal components from Corydalis tuber. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994 Feb;17(2):262-5.

[18] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998, 334:336.

[19] Zhong Yao Da Ci Dian (Dictionary of Chinese Herbs), 1977:1596.

[20] Zhang Q, Shi Y, Liu XT, Liang JY, Ip NY, Min ZD. Minor limonoids from Melia toosendan and their antibacterial activity. Planta Med. 2007 Oct;73(12):1298-303.

[21] Shan Dong Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Shandong Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1986; (5):12.