Back to the Cover Page

Cordyceps 3

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

* Kidney disorders: nephritis, glomerulonephritis, nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and compromised kidney functions

* Sexual and reproductive disorders: low sperm count, poor sperm motility, insufficient sex hormones

* Metabolic disorders: fatigue, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia

* Respiratory disorders: asthma, tracheitis, prevention of infection

* Immune disorders: chronic, compromised and/or low immunity

 

WESTERN THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS

* Improves kidney and ear functions 

* Increases sperm count and sperm motility

* Enhances energy and increases the basal metabolism 

* Prevents and treats elevated cholesterol levels

* Prevents and treats respiratory disorders

* Stimulates the immune system

 

CHINESE THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS

* Tonifies Kidney yang and augments Kidney jing (essence)

* Tonifies Lung, stops bleeding and dissolves phlegm

* Tonifies qi

 

DOSAGE

Take 3 to 4 capsules three times daily on an empty stomach with warm water. Cordyceps 3 is safe for long-term use.

 

INGREDIENTS

Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps)

Huang Qi (Radix Astragali)

Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng)

 

BACKGROUND

Cordyceps 3 is an herbal formula that tonifies the Lung, the Spleen, and the Kidney. In traditional Chinese medicine, Lung imbalance corresponds to respiratory and immune disorders in Western medicine; Spleen imbalance refers to metabolic disorders; and Kidney imbalance is often related to renal disorders as well as sexual and reproductive disorders.

 

FORMULA EXPLANATION

Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps), Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) are three of the most precious herbs in Chinese herbal medicine. The combination of these three herbs has a wide spectrum of beneficial effects, including but not limited to increasing energy, strengthening the overall constitution of the body, and improving overall well-being. Clinically, these herbs are commonly used to treat deficiencies of the Lung, Spleen and/or Kidney.

        Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) has a remarkable effect to tonify both the Lung and the Kidney, and to treat chronic deficiency of both organs. Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) tonifies the Kidney to treat impotence, spermatorrhea, frequent urination, nocturnal emission, premature ejaculation, tinnitus, forgetfulness, and early signs of aging. Furthermore, it tonifies the Lung to treat chronic respiratory disorders, such as chronic cough and frequent respiratory infections. Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) tonifies the qi to improve energy levels, strengthens the Lung to prevent and treat infections, and enhances the immune system to fight against cancer. It is one of the most potent and effective herbs for patients with generalized weakness and deficiencies. Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is one of the oldest and most recognized herbs in Chinese herbal medicine. It has a tremendous ability to tonify qi to improve energy, strengthen the Spleen to improve digestion, tonify the Lung to prevent infection, and calm the shen (spirit) to improve mental function.

        In short, Cordyceps 3 is formulated with three of the best tonic herbs in the Chinese herbal pharmacopoeia. The tonic effect is gentle and potent, allowing the herbs to be taken safely for a long period of time. Cordyceps 3 has a wide range of therapeutic effects and can be used on a long-term basis. Lastly, it is also an antiaging tonic to ensure optimal health.

 

CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

* This formula should be used with caution with the following conditions: in the presence of an exterior pathogen, excess internal heat or dampness, and with infectious or inflammatory diseases.

* Some patients may notice headache and irritability after taking Cordyceps 3 because of its warm and tonic properties. If that is the case, reduce the dosage to 1 to 2 capsules three times daily.

 

CLINICAL NOTES

* Cordyceps 3 is most effective when used on a long-term basis for prevention of various cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory disorders. Furthermore, it is one of the best herbal formulas to stimulate the immune system to fight against cancer. It should be taken continuously for at least 4 to 6 months for maximum effectiveness.

* Cordyceps 3 is excellent for treating many disorders, such as cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory diseases. However, though it is useful if taken individually, results can be enhanced by combining it with other appropriate formulas as listed in Supplementary Formulas.

 

Pulse Diagnosis by Dr. Jimmy Wei-Yen Chang:

* Tent pulse, a convex-shaped pulse that collapses under pressure on the right cun

 

SUPPLEMENTARY FORMULAS

* To tonify the yin, yang, qi and blood of the body, add Imperial Tonic.

* For patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy or radiation, add C/R Support.

* For patients with cancer who are unable to receive chemotherapy or radiation due to generalized weakness or deficiency, add CA Support.

* Kidney disorders (proteinuria, nephritis, glomerulonephritis, nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microalbuminuria, and compromised kidney functions), add Kidney DTX.

* For Kidney yin deficiency, add Kidney Tonic (Yin).

* For Kidney yang deficiency, add Kidney Tonic (Yang).

* For dry, brittle, or gray hair, add Polygonum 14.

* To enhance the immune system, add Immune +.

* For chronic cough or asthma arising from Kidney and Lung yin deficiencies, add Respitrol (Deficient).

* For cough with unknown etiology, add Respitrol (CF).

* For tinnitus, add Nourish.

* For patients who are “burned out” with adrenal insufficiency, add Adrenal +.

* For impotence and reproductive disorders in men, add Vitality.

* For lack of libido in women, add Vitality.

* For male infertility, low sperm count, poor sperm quality, add Vital Essence.

* For female infertility, add Blossom (Phases 1-4).

* For thirst or dryness, add Nourish (Fluids).

* For anemia, add Schisandra ZZZ.

 

ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT

Traditional Points:

* Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13)

 

Classic Master Tung's Points:

* Nephritis (chronic): Tianhuangfu [Shenguan] (T 77.18), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21), Huoying (T 66.03), Tongshen (T 88.09), Houzhui (T 44.02), Shouying (T 44.03), Shuixiang (T 66.14), Shuixian (T 66.15), Tongwei (T 88.10), Tongbei (T 88.11)   

* Pyelonephritis: Shuijin (T 1010.20), Shuitong (T 1010.19), Wanshunyi (T 22.08), Wanshuner (T 22.09), Tongshen (T 88.09), Tongguan (T 88.01), Houzhui (T 44.02), Shouying (T 44.03)

* Proteinuria: Tongshen (T 88.09), Tongwei (T 88.10), Tianhuang (T 77.17), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21), Shuijin (T 1010.20), Shuitong (T 1010.19), Shuixiang (T 66.14), Shuixian (T 66.15), Tongbei (T 88.11) 

* Spermatorrhea: Tianhuang (T 77.17), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21), Tongshen (T 88.09), Tongwei (T 88.10), Shuijin (T 1010.20), Shuitong (T 1010.19), Tianhuangfu [Shenguan] (T 77.18). Moxa Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongji (CV 3), Zhongshu (GV 7)

* Impotence: Tianhuang (T 77.17), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21), Tianhuang (T 88.13), Minghuang (T 88.12), Qihuang (T 88.14), Tongshen (T 88.09), Tongwei (T 88.10), Sanshen (T 44.27)*. Bleed tender points on the Kidney area of the back from L1-L5 with cupping. Bleed before needling for best result. Moxa the Kidney area on the back from L1-L5, Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongji (CV 3)

* Fatigue: Tianhuang (T 77.17), Dihuang (T 77.19), Renhuang (T 77.21), Minghuang (T 88.12), Tianhuang (T 88.13), Qihuang (T 88.14), Beimian (T 44.07), Sanyan (T 11.21), Zhitong (T 44.13)

 

Ear Acupuncture:

* Nose, Spleen, Bone Marrow

 

Auricular Medicine by Dr. Li-Chun Huang:

* Asthma: Bronchus, Stop Asthma, Sympathetic, Adrenal Gland, Allergic Area, Chest, Endocrine, Coronary Vascular Subcortex. Bleed Ear Apex.

* Improving fatigue: Sympathetic, Kidney, Liver, Spleen, San Jiao, Anxious, Nervous Subcortex, Speed Recovered

* Promoting immunity: Allergic Area, Endocrine, Adrenal Gland, Spleen, Liver. Bleed Ear Apex and Helix 1-6.

* Preventing common cold: Spleen, Lung, Endocrine, Allergic Area, Adrenal Gland. Bleed Ear Apex.

* Impaired hearing: Internal Ear, External Ear, San Jiao, Vision I, Kidney, Gallbladder, Sympathetic, External Sympathetic, Cardiovascular Subcortex, Temple (Auditory Center), Speed Hearing (Elbow)

* Tinnitus: Internal Ear, Temple (Auditory Center), San Jiao

 

NUTRITION

* Include more nuts and seeds like walnuts and pine nuts in the diet.

 

LIFESTYLE INSTRUCTIONS

* Sleep by 10:00 p.m. In TCM, 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. is when the yin shifts to yang. It is crucial for the body to be at rest during this time for optimal health.

* Since there is such a wide range of therapeutic benefits associated with this formula, please refer to other related formulas for detailed descriptions of nutrition and lifestyle instructions pertinent to the specific imbalance being addressed.

 

CASE STUDIES

* J.L., a 36-year-old male, presented with fatigue due to working long hours at work. Additional symptoms included cold sensation and low sperm mobility. This condition was diagnosed as Lung and Kidney yin deficiencies and was treated with Cordyceps 3. The patient has been taking the herbs for six months and has noticed improved energy and less fatigue. He is continuing to take them to improve his sperm mobility. Submitted by L.M., Portland, Oregon.

* S.W, a 61-year-old female, presented with fatigue, weak sensation of the lungs, sighing, and sweating easily at times. In addition, she was also experiencing some low back pain and frequent colds with immune system disorders. The Western diagnosis was chronic fatigue syndrome; the TCM diagnosis was Lung and Kidney qi deficiencies. This condition was treated with Cordyceps 3 and Ba Wei Di Huang Wan (Eight-Ingredient Pill with Rehmannia). After taking the herbs she noticed the duration of the fatigue was shorter each day, her sleep had improved, lungs felt great with breathing and she felt stronger emotionally. The patient continued taking the herbs for three months. Submitted by L.M., Portland, Oregon.

* D.D., a 72-year-old male, presented with shortness of breath and cough with frothy, clear white sputum. It was noted that this patient was diabetic, post-stroke, with a heart function of 77%, and creatinine level of 1.8 mg/dL. Objective findings included left leg hot to the touch, right leg cold to the touch, and difficulty with inhaling. He had recently taken two rounds of antibiotics. The practitioner diagnosed this condition as Kidney not grasping the qi, Lung and Spleen qi deficiencies with phlegm accumulation; his Western diagnosis was COPD. For treatment he was given a combination of Cordyceps 3, Respitrol (Deficient), Circulation (SJ) and Neuro Plus, just one bottle at a time. The patient gradually improved, getting stronger each week and continued taking the herbs for about three months. Submitted by T.W., Perrysburg, Ohio.

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Cordyceps 3 has a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects and clinical applications. Historically, the herbs in this formula have been used to treat disorders of the Kidney (renal, sexual and reproductive disorders), Spleen (metabolic disorders) and Lung (respiratory and immune disorders). More recently, it has been used to support cancer patients with great results.

        Cordyceps 3 contains herbs to tonify the Kidney and restore renal functions. In one study, daily ingestion of Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) for 30 days effectively reduced protein in the urine from 4.3g to 1.32g in 18 patients with nephritis and proteinuria.[1] In another study, 117 patients with compromised kidney function were treated with Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily with good results.[2] Furthermore, 23 patients with tinnitus were treated with Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily for four weeks with significant improvement.[3] Besides Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps), Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) is also regarded as one of the most effective herbs for the treatment of kidney-related disorders, such as proteinuria, nephritis, and glomerulonephritis. The clinical benefits of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) in treating kidney disorders include decreased amount of protein in the urine, increased volume of urine, and decreased excretion of chloride and ammonia.[4] According to clinical studies, use of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) is associated with beneficial actions against nephropathy and glomerulonephritis.[5] In one clinical trial, 20 patients with nephritis were treated with Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) decoction for 15 to 90 days with improvements noted in 16 patients.[6] In another study, 56 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were treated with intramuscular injections of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) for one month with marked reduction of protein in the urine (effective rate of 61.7%) and an improvement of kidney functions.[7] Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) also shows a marked effect to ameliorate the pathological changes of early diabetic nephropathy by reducing fasting blood glucose and albuminuria levels, and reversing the glomerular hyperfiltration state.[8] Diabetic microalbuminuria in type II diabetes can also be effectively treated with Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and Chuan Xiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). The mechanism of action may relate with the therapeutic effects of herbs on anti-inflammation, antioxidation and alleviation of the hypo-fibrinolytic/pro-thrombotic state.[9]

        Cordyceps 3 also tonifies the Kidney to treat sexual and reproductive disorders. Pharmacologically, it has been shown that the use of Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) is associated with an increase in sperm count and sperm motility.[10] In one clinical study, 197 patients with sexual disorders were treated with Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily for 40 days, with an effective rate of 64.15%.[11] In addition, the use of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is associated with stimulation of the pituitary gland to increase the secretion of gonadotropin. According to laboratory studies, it increases the production of sperm in males, and it lengthens the estrus period in females.[12] Furthermore, Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is also effective in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. According to one clinical study, 24 patients with low sperm count were treated with a preparation of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng). An increase in sperm count was noted in 70% of patients, and an increase in sperm motility in 67% of the patients.[13]

        Cordyceps 3 has a strong tonic effect on the Spleen to treat metabolic disorders. Increased energy, elevated metabolism, and improved general well-being are three of the most immediate and recognizable benefits of this formula. Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) have direct effects to increase energy and elevate metabolism. Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) is an excellent tonic that raises the energy level by increasing the basal metabolic rate and cAMP.[14] Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) awakens the central nervous system which improves both mental and physical performances.[15],[16] It has been demonstrated in one laboratory study that the administration of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is associated with a marked effect in improving memory and learning abilities.[17] Furthermore, Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) has a marked influence on the endocrine system to balance many hormones in the body. It stimulates the pituitary gland to increase the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal glands and their activities.[18] In another study, use of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) has been associated with an increase in adrenal cortical hormone (ACH) and ACTH, and subsequently better physical performance.[19] Lastly, Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) has been shown to stimulate the secretion of adrenal gland hormones.[20] Together, these herbs help the body to achieve a healthy balance of its endocrine system.

        Cordyceps 3 contains herbs to treat metabolic disorders, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) is effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.[21] In one clinical study, 273 patients with hyperlipidemia were treated with 1 gram of Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily, and showed a marked decrease of LDL and triglycerides and increase of HDL.[22] Another study of 204 patients reported that Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) is effective in lowering LDL.[23] Similarly, Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is effective in treating atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia. In one study, use of a Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) preparation twice daily was beneficial in patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and chest pain. Furthermore, Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) has also been found to have a moderate effect in lowering blood cholesterol levels, with a significant influence to lower triglycerides.[24] Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose levels and increase blood insulin levels in subjects with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic action appeared to be due to increased release of insulin.[25] Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) is also effective in lowering blood glucose in subjects with hyperglycemia.[26] Ginsenoside Rc, an active component of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng), significantly enhances glucose uptake by inducing ROS generation, which leads to AMPK and p38 MAPK activation.[27]

        Finally, Cordyceps 3 contains herbs to tonify the Lung and treat various respiratory disorders. Pharmacologically, Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) has demonstrated bronchodilating and antibiotic effects.[28],[29] Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) is beneficial for the treatment of asthma. The mechanism of action is attributed to the regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from the herb.[30] In one clinical trial, 656 patients with chronic respiratory tract disorders were treated with Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily for 40 days with good success.[31] In another study, 43 patients with allergic rhinitis were treated with 6 grams of Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) three times daily for four weeks with 93% effective rate.[32] In addition, one study reported an 84.4% rate of effectiveness using Dong Chong Xia Cao to treat 109 patients with chronic tracheitis.[33] Furthermore, the use of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) was found through numerous clinical trials to be effective in prevention of respiratory tract disorders. In one study, the use of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) was associated with a decreased risk of infection as well as shortened duration of infection.[34] In another study, daily use of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) showed a 94% effectiveness in prevention of respiratory tract infections in 100 children.[35] Lastly, in a clinical trial of 41 patients with asthma, injection of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) daily for three months showed significant improvement in 85.4% of patients.[36]

        Most importantly, Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) is one of the few herbs that have demonstrated an exceptional stimulant effect on the immune system to fight cancer. Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) has a direct cytotoxic effect. It has a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of many cancer cell lines: breast cancer, melanoma, human premyelocytic leukemia, human hepatocellular carcinoma, leukemia, and human oral squamous cancer cells.[37],[38],[39] Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps) also enhances the immune system by stimulating and increasing the phagocytic activities of macrophages against foreign substances.[40] This effect is further potentiated with the addition of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng). Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) is extremely effective in enhancing the immune system and reversing immune deficiency.[41],[42],[43] In patients with leukopenia, administration of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) was associated with an obvious rise of white blood cell count in 115 patients.[44] Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) also has an immune-enhancing effect for increasing the function of the reticuloendothelial system and the total IgM count.[45] In one clinical study, 52 cancer patients who have leukopenia caused by chemotherapy were able to continue and complete the entire course of chemotherapy treatment with the intake of Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) to prevent bone marrow suppression.[46]

        In summary, Cordyceps 3 is a diversified formula that can be used for treatment and prevention of numerous conditions. It is also one of the best general tonic formulas to take on a long-term basis to ensure health and well-being.

 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

One striking difference between Western and traditional Chinese medicine is that Western medicine focuses and excels in crisis management, while traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes and shines in holistic and preventative treatments. Therefore, in emergencies, such as gunshot wounds or surgery, Western medicine is generally the treatment of choice. However, for treatment of chronic idiopathic illness of unknown origins, where all lab tests are normal and a clear diagnosis cannot be made, traditional Chinese medicine is distinctly superior.

        Cordyceps 3 is an herbal tonic that has a broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. It may be used as maintenance and preventive treatment for various conditions, including but not limited to chronic immune deficiency, chronic fatigue syndrome, and sexual and/or reproductive dysfunctions. For many of these conditions, traditional Chinese medicine is superior to Western medicine, as there are limited drug options available.

 



[1] Zhong Yao Lin Chuan Xin Yong (New Clinical Applications of Chinese Medicine), 2001; 196-197.

[2] Shang Hai Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1986; 8:29.

[3] Fu Jian Yi Yao Za Zhi (Fujian Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1985; 6:42.

[4] Jiang Su Yi Xue (Jiangsu Medical Journal), 1989; 15(1):12.

[5] Jiang Su Yi Xue (Jiangsu Medical Journal), 1989; 15(1):12.

[6] Hei Long Jiang Zhong Yi Yao (Heilongjiang Chinese Medicine and Herbology), 1982; 1:39.

[7] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Journal of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine), 1987; 7:403.

[8] Zhang J, Xie X, Li C, Fu P. Systematic review of the renal protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus (root) on diabetic nephropathy in animal models. Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Nov 12;126(2):189-96.

[9] Lu ZM, Yu YR, Tang H, Zhang XX. The protective effects of Radix Astragali and Rhizoma Ligustici chuanxiong on endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Jul;36(4):529-32.

[10] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 785:788.

[11] Jiang Su Zhong Yi Yao (Jiangsu Medicine and Herbology), 1985; 5:46.

[12] Zhong Cheng Yao (Study of Chinese Patent Medicine), 1989; 11(9):30.

[13] Ji Lin Yi Xue (Jilin Medicine), 1983; 5:54.

[14] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Lin Chuang (Pharmacology and Clinical Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1985:193.

[15] Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Ying Yong (Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Herbs), 1983; 16.

[16] Zhong Hua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Medicine), 1985; 42(12):13.

[17] Zhong Yao Ci Hai (Encyclopedia of Chinese Herbs), 1994.

[18] Bai Qiu En Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao (Journal of Baiqiuen University of Medicine), 1980; 6(2):32.

[19] Planta Med, 1979; 30:43.

[20] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Journal of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine), 1990; 10(9):570.

[21] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 785:788.

[22] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Journal of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine), 1985; 11:652.

[23] Qing Hai Yi Yao Za Zhi (Qinghai Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1986; 3:22.

[24] Ji Lin Yi Xue (Jilin Medicine), 1983; 5:54.

[25] Ma W, Nomura M, Takahashi-Nishioka T, Kobayashi S. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Nov;30(11):2079-83.

[26] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 729:736.

[27] Lee MS, Hwang JT, Kim SH, Yoon S, Kim MS, Yang HJ, Kwon DY. Ginsenoside Rc, an active component of Panax ginseng, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes through an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Biogeron Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute, Bundang-ku, Songnam, Republic of Korea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 17;127(3):771-6.

[28] Fu Jian Yi Yao Za Zhi (Fujian Journal of Medicine and Herbology), 1983; 5:311.

[29] Ren Min Wei Sheng Chu Ban She (Journal of People's Public Health), 1983; 358.

[30] Kuo YC, Tsai WJ, Wang JY, Chang SC, Lin CY, Shiao MS. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci. 2001 Jan 19;68(9):1067-82.

[31] Zhong Cao Yao (Chinese Herbal Medicine), 1987; 10:8.

[32] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Journal of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine), 1987; 1:43.

[33] Zhong Yao Lin Chuan Xin Yong (New Clinical Applications of Chinese Medicine), 2001; 197.

[34] Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1980; 1:71.

[35] Jiang Su Zhong Yi (Jiangsu Chinese Medicine), 1988; 9:32.

[36] Zhong Hua Er Ke Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Pediatrics), 1978; 2:87.

[37] Wu JY, Zhang QX, Leung PH. Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on various cancer cells in culture and B16 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice. Phytomedicine. 2007 Jan;14(1):43-9.

[38] Lui JC, Wong JW, Suen YK, Kwok TT, Fung KP, Kong SK. Cordycepin induced eryptosis in mouse erythrocytes through a Ca2+-dependent pathway without caspase-3 activation. Arch Toxicol. 2007 Dec;81(12):859-65.

[39] Wu WC, Hsiao JR, Lian YY, Lin CY, Huang BM. The apoptotic effect of cordycepin on human OEC-M1 oral cancer cell line. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;60(1):103-11.

[40] Shang Hai Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1988; 1:48.

[41] Biol Pharm Bull, 1977; 20(11)-1178-82.

[42] Yun Nan Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Yunan Journal of Chinese Medicine), 1980; 2:28.

[43] Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, 1988 Mar.; 25(3):125-9.

[44] Zhong Guo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine), 1995 Aug.; 15(8):462-4.

[45] Zhong Yao Xue (Chinese Herbology), 1998; 729:736.

[46] Te Chan Ke Xue Shi Yan (Research of Special Scientific Projects), 1984; 4:24.